Who is Mount Everest named after?

Who is Mount Everest named after?

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In 1852 the British-sponsored Great Trigonometrical Survey, which had been mapping the Indian subcontinent since the early 1800s, identified the highest mountain in the world straddling Nepal and Tibet in the Himalayas. The British initially referred to the 29,035-foot-tall pinnacle as Peak XV until Andrew Waugh, the surveyor general of India, proposed that it be named for his predecessor, Sir George Everest.

Born in Wales on July 4, 1790, Everest attended military schools in England before spending much of his adult life in India. After working for the East India Company, the geodesist joined the Great Trigonometrical Survey in 1818 and spent 25 years on the project, working his way up to superintendent in 1823 and then surveyor general of India in 1830. He returned to Great Britain following his retirement in 1843 and was knighted in 1861.

Everest, who had favored native place-names as a surveyor, objected to Waugh’s proposal that the highest peak in the world be named in his honor. Although the Tibetans already called the mountain Chomolungma (“Goddess Mother of the World”), Waugh was apparently unaware of that indigenous moniker or those used in Nepal, which had barred the survey team from crossing its borders. “I was taught by my respected chief and predecessor, Colonel Sir George Everest to assign to every geographical object its true local or native appellation. But here is a mountain, most probably the highest in the world, without any local name that we can discover, whose native appellation, if it has any, will not very likely be ascertained before we are allowed to penetrate into Nepal,” Waugh wrote to the Royal Geographical Society in 1856. In spite of Everest’s argument that locals would have difficulty pronouncing his name, the society decided in 1865 to dub the world’s tallest peak Mount Everest anyway. The 76-year-old Everest died the following year on December 1, 1866. It’s unknown whether he ever glimpsed his namesake mountain.

Who is Mount Everest named after? - HISTORY

Wikimedia Commons The corpse of Tsewang Paljor, also known as “Green Boots”, is one of the most famous bodies on Mount Everest.

The demise of an Indian climber named Tsewang Paljor — who would become known as Green Boots — is perhaps the most famous of all Mount Everest deaths. Named for the neon-colored gear he wore when he died, Paljor has been frozen stiff on the mountain’s Northeast Ridge since 1996 and remains a macabre landmark of sorts even a quarter-century later.

Long before his fateful trip, Paljor dropped out of school after the 10th grade to work for the Indo-Tibetan Border Patrol (ITBP) and support his family. By 1996, the 28-year-old was ready to accompany his team of ITBP colleagues on the Everest journey they’d planned and become the first Indian team to reach the North Summit.

Rachel Nuwer/BBC Tsewang Paljor was a 28-year old policemen when he died, joining the more than 300 victims of Mount Everest.

But fate had something else in store for them on May 10, 1996. A lethal storm overtook the group and they were simply no match for it. Paljor was physically strong and aware of how treacherous the high-altitude elements would be, but the weather was too powerful to combat.

Soon enough, Paljor and seven of his compatriots were dead. It became known as the 1996 Everest Disaster and it was the deadliest day in the mountain’s history, a title it held until 2014.

The expedition’s sole survivor, Harbhajan Singh, remembered how bad things got.

With harsh gusts of wind, snow, and below-freezing temperatures, Singh was compelled to turn back and urged the others to follow suit. Unfortunately for them, they were determined to carry on, spurred by so-called “summit fever” and desperate to make history.

Paljor’s team wasn’t the only source of fatalities that day. Several other guides died on May 10 while helping inexperienced climbers navigate the mountain.

Everest’s Death Zone, which stretches from 26,000 feet to its summit, holds Paljor’s body to this day. Paljor was found in a limestone cave at 27,887 feet, on his side wearing his distinctive green boots.

He remains one of the most chilling of all the dead bodies on Mount Everest and has served as a macabre yet unforgettable marker for climbers ever since his demise.

Who Was George Everest?

Everest’s interest in surveying went back to his days at military school in England. The young man excelled at his engineering training, and he embarked on a seven-year tour in Bengal from 1806 to 1813. In 1814, Everest relocated to the Dutch East Indies where he helped complete the trigonometric survey of Java for two years.

Following that time, Everest returned to India in 1818 where he spent the next 25 years helping the British map the entire subcontinent. When Everest came back to India, he reunited with Col. William Lambton, a good friend the man with whom he worked in 1806 on the survey of Bengal.

Lambton died in 1823, which gave Everest a chance to bring his full training to bear. In 1830, Everest became surveyor general of India. That allowed him to get even more resources to continue the gigantic survey of India.

Taking precise measurements of a huge country with a wide range of climates. Surveyors trekked through dense jungles and parched deserts. At one point, Everest fell ill. The survey ground to a halt. Undeterred, Everest recovered and returned to his job.

Wikimedia Commons A theodolite, a device that Everest and his team used to survey the Indian subcontinent.

Everest was more than just a surveyor, he was an inventor. As an engineer, he made several improvements to surveying equipment of the day. His teams made accurate measurements from the Himalayas all the way down to the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, an awe-inspiring achievement considering it was done by taking measurements on the ground without the aid of high-tech lasers, satellites or aerial photos. Survey teams began with primitive theodolites before Everest improved these devices.

Everest was also a stickler for accuracy. He didn’t leave an area until he made sure he got accurate readings and data. His information helped make the most accurate maps of India.

Everest retired from his position in 1843 as a colonel in the military. For his hard work, Mount Everest was named for him in 1856.

One hundred and fifty years since Mount Everest was named after a Welshman. and the links with the world's highest mountain don't end there

The close Welsh links to the stories behind one of man’s ultimate achievements – the conquest of the highest mountain on Earth – are perhaps not immediately apparent.

Yet Welsh mountaineers, scientists, journalists and even hoteliers have all played key roles in the mountain’s history.

And, although he was said to be reluctant to have his name bestowed upon it, the world’s tallest peak still bears the name of a Welshman – with 2015 marking the 150th anniversary of the renaming of the crown of the Himalayas after Sir George Everest.

Born in 1790 in Crickhowell in Powys, Everest joined the East India Company as a teenager, eventually winning promotion to the post of Surveyor-General of India in 1830.

He served in the role until 1843, during which time he was responsible for mapping out vast swathes of the Indian subcontinent.

It was in 1865, however, that his name was immortalised.

His successor in the post, Andrew Scott Waugh, announced he would rename the world’s highest mountain, previously known simply as “Peak XV”, after his eminent forerunner – to Everest’s annoyance.

Controversially named

And naming the 29,029ft mountain “Everest” remains controversial in Nepal and Tibet.

In Tibetan, the peak goes by the name Chomolungma, or Mother Goddess of the Universe. In Nepali, the mountain – which straddles the border between the two – is named Sagarmatha, which translates as Goddess of the Sky.

There have been some calls – albeit relatively muted – for the mountain to lose the moniker Everest and to readopt those names more widely, with some arguments suggesting keeping the name of an imperial British surveyor is an outdated colonial throw-back.

Everest’s birthplace and familial home in the small Powys town is now the Manor Hotel. Then the Manor of Gwernvale, the hotel remains proud of the link, displaying a number of artefacts from Everest expeditions and having named its restaurant after the man himself.

It was in May 1953 that Everest was conquered for the first time. New Zealander Edmund Hillary and his Sherpa colleague Tenzing Norgay became instant global celebrities, with their exploits capturing the imagination of millions all over the globe.

But the duo had a number of Welshmen to thank for helping them to mountaineering immortality.

And it was in the foothills of Mount Snowdon, where the duo spent much of their time preparing for their history-making quest, staying in the Pen-y-Gwryd Hotel.

Hotel owner Christopher Briggs was one of the first people to be told of the successful conquest of Everest, being informed by the Times – whose Welsh journalist Jan Morris was the only reporter to be embedded with the expedition – just after the news was conveyed to the Queen.

The hotel is still run by the same family today, with mementoes of the inaugural conquest on display. Mr Briggs’ grandson Rupert Pullee, who is co-owner alongside brother Nick, said: “(The team) treated Pen-y-Gwryd like home – they got very friendly with my grandfather.

“When Everest was climbed he got a phone call from the editor of the Times. The Queen was notified but we were second or third on the list.”

First attempt

Subsequent reunions of the team also took place at the hotel.

The team’s deputy leader, Charles Evans – who grew up near Llangollen and who went on to become principal of Bangor University – had actually come within a few hundred feet of beating Hillary and Tenzing and etching his own name in the annals of history.

Alongside Tom Bourdillon, Evans made the first attempt to reach the summit just three days before Hillary and Tenzing did so successfully – but had to turn back because of a fault with the oxygen supplies.

Another Welshman in the team was also perhaps the most instrumental team member behind the scenes of the success.

But Griffith Pugh, a scientist originally from Aberystwyth, has been largely written out of the history of the expedition, with some of his efforts at the time not being taken to kindly by many other members of the party, led by John Hunt.

Pugh’s daughter Harriet Tuckey – who admits she did not get on with her father, who died in the mid-1990s – has written a book to try to redress the balance.

Among the crucial measures implemented on the advice of Pugh was an increase in the amount of oxygen provided to the climbers, a device to turn snow into drinking water much more quickly than before – with Pugh being among the first to fully understand the debilitating effect of dehydration – and pioneering methods of acclimatisation.

He also designed everything from the diets followed to the boots worn by those in the team.

Harriet said: “There was just no detail he didn’t get involved in.

“Hillary himself told me that my father made it possible for him to climb Everest.

Welsh links continue through decade

“I started out full of resentment for my father and I ended up admiring him as an amazing, remarkable and highly original scientist and being grateful to him.

“I discovered he was terribly interested in people – he always wanted to know about people. If he was in a Sherpa village he would be thinking about how they built their houses and what he could learn from it.”

Her book, Everest: The First Ascent, was published in 2013.

Not that the Welsh links were concentrated solely around that famous inaugural success.

In 1979, Welshman Tom Whittaker, an amputee, became the first person with a disability to reach the top of the world.

The latest chapter in the story of our links with Mount Everest was written in 2007 when Victoria James became the then-youngest British woman – and first Welsh woman – to reach the summit.

Even George Everest, reluctant to have his name given to the world’s tallest peak, would be proud of what his compatriots have since achieved.

Why was Mount Everest named after George Everest?

George Everest's student, Andrew Waugh, had surveyed and mapped Everest. When he had done so, there were several names by multiple cultures at the time. Some of these names include, but are not limited to Qomolangma, Zhumulangma, Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng, and Sagarmāthā. In order to simplify things, Waugh, as the surveyor and mapper of the mountain, decided to give the mountain an official name. In order to better understand Waugh's thoughts, this excerpt was taken from

"Papers relating to the Himalaya and Mount Everest", Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London , no.IX pp.345-351, April-May 1857.

"I was taught by my respected chief and predecessor, Colonel Sir George Everest to assign to every geographical object its true local or native appellation. But here is a mountain, most probably the highest in the world, without any local name that we can discover, whose native appellation, if it has any, will not very likely be ascertained before we are allowed to penetrate into Nepal. In the meantime the privilege as well as the duty devolves on me to assign. a name whereby it may be known among citizens and geographers and become a household word among civilized nations."

Because Waugh could not determine what to do, he insisted that Everest be named after his mentor. George Everest did not agree with this adoption, but regardless of his opposition the Royal Geographical Society adopted the proposed name (proposed in 1857 by Andrew Waugh) in 1865. Oddly enough, the actual pronunciation of the mountain does not match that of George Everest's last name. George Everest's last name is actually pronounced Eve-rest opposed to the mountain's pronunciation of Everest. Nonetheless, the accustomed name has a long history as previously described.

We're All Mispronouncing Mount Everest's Name

The highest mountain on Earth? Very few quarrel with the fact that it's Mount Everest, standing at over 29,000 feet above sea level. Located in the Himalayas, it's been known as Mount Everest since it was named after Welsh surveyor and geographer Colonel Sir George Everest in 1865.

While George Everest objected to the honor, the Royal Geographical Society went ahead and named it after him due to his significant contribution to the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, which took place over several decades starting in 1806.

However, over time the pronunciation of Everest's name has altered to the point where now the way people commonly say "Mount Everest" isn't actually reflective of the man who gave the mountain its name.

George Everest's surname was actually pronounced Eve-rest, with the emphasis on 'Eve,' like the woman's name. But the mountain is almost universally, in the English language, known as Ever-est (or, in some cases, Evv-rest).

Language and pronunciations evolve, of course, so it's hard to see that there's an absolute right or wrong here. But to stay true to the Royal Geographical Society's original intentions, Earth's highest peak should technically be referred to as "Mount Eve-rest."

Physical features

The Himalayan ranges were thrust upward by tectonic action as the Indian-Australian Plate moved northward from the south and was subducted (forced downward) under the Eurasian Plate following the collision of the two plates between about 40 and 50 million years ago. The Himalayas themselves started rising about 25 to 30 million years ago, and the Great Himalayas began to take their present form during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). Everest and its surrounding peaks are part of a large mountain massif that forms a focal point, or knot, of this tectonic action in the Great Himalayas. Information from global positioning instruments in place on Everest since the late 1990s indicates that the mountain continues to move a few inches to the northeast and rise a fraction of an inch each year.

Everest is composed of multiple layers of rock folded back on themselves (nappes). Rock on the lower elevations of the mountain consists of metamorphic schists and gneisses, topped by igneous granites. Higher up are found sedimentary rocks of marine origin (remnants of the ancient floor of the Tethys Sea that closed after the collision of the two plates). Notable is the Yellow Band, a limestone formation that is prominently visible just below the summit pyramid.

The barren Southeast, Northeast, and West ridges culminate in the Everest summit a short distance away is the South Summit, a minor bump on the Southeast Ridge with an elevation of 28,700 feet (8,748 metres). The mountain can be seen directly from its northeastern side, where it rises about 12,000 feet (3,600 metres) above the Plateau of Tibet. The peak of Changtse (24,803 feet [7,560 metres]) rises to the north. Khumbutse (21,867 feet [6,665 metres]), Nuptse (25,791 feet [7,861 metres]), and Lhotse (27,940 feet [8,516 metres]) surround Everest’s base to the west and south.

Everest is shaped like a three-sided pyramid. The three generally flat planes constituting the sides are called faces, and the line by which two faces join is known as a ridge. The North Face rises above Tibet and is bounded by the North Ridge (which meets the Northeast Ridge) and the West Ridge key features of this side of the mountain include the Great and Hornbein couloirs (steep gullies) and the North Col at the start of the North Ridge. The Southwest Face rises above Nepal and is bounded by the West Ridge and the Southeast Ridge notable features on this side include the South Col (at the start of the Southeast Ridge) and the Khumbu Icefall, the latter a jumble of large blocks of ice that has long been a daunting challenge for climbers. The East Face—or Kangshung (Kangxung) Face—also rises above Tibet and is bounded by the Southeast Ridge and the Northeast Ridge.

The summit of Everest itself is covered by rock-hard snow surmounted by a layer of softer snow that fluctuates annually by some 5–20 feet (1.5–6 metres) the snow level is highest in September, after the monsoon, and lowest in May after having been depleted by the strong northwesterly winter winds. The summit and upper slopes sit so high in the Earth’s atmosphere that the amount of breathable oxygen there is one-third what it is at sea level. Lack of oxygen, powerful winds, and extremely cold temperatures preclude the development of any plant or animal life there.

Why is ‘Sagarmatha’ called as “Mt. Everest”?

Most of the part of Mt. Everest lies in Nepal. And the remaining part in China. The name given by Nepal is ‘Sagarmatha’. And in China it is called ‘Chomolunga’. But the name widely and officially used all over the world is ‘The Everest’. Isn’t it strange? How can the name of a Nepali mountain be British?

The story is 200 years old. Britain used to rule in India. But they didn’t have any precise map of this geography. At that time, it was a major problem for them. And then, measuring such huge geography wasn’t an easy task as well. But one British soldier came up with a solution to this, William Lambton. His idea was to measure the by using Trigonometry. But this wasn’t an easy task as well. Very big towers were to be built for this. Instruments needed to be very accurate. And at that time, Theodolites used to be huge. When it was being brought in a ship… France stopped it in the way, mistaking for a weapon. Anyways, the instruments came to India anyhow. And then started… biggest scientific survey of all times. The Great Trigonometric Survey (GTS) The main leader of this was- William Lambton, who was given the position- And his assistant was George Everest. Yes, Everest. When William Lambton died, George Everest became the Surveyor General. And here comes the biggest misconception. George Everest didn’t discover Mt Everest. He didn’t even see it in his lifetime.

When George Everest retired… his assistant Andrew Waugh became Surveyor General and continued the work of GTS. Till then, Kanchenjunga was considered to be the highest peak of the world. Mt. Everest was just another peak amidst the mountains. And the English used to call it Peak XV. A mathematician who was working for Andrew Waugh, Radhanath SIkdhar found out Peak XV to be the highest. Till then, all geographies used to be named by its local name.

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But this didn’t happen in the case of Mt. Everest. Andrew Waugh proposed it to be named after his predecessor George Everest. It’s like…what the hell! George Everest had nothing to do with Mt. Everest. Actually, Everest himself didn’t agree with this. His values were that… any geography must be named after its local name. Later on, some discussions were done in England regarding this n0ame. Some other names too came forward.

But in 1865, Britain’s Royal Geographical Society named the mountain of Nepal- ‘Everest’. ‘Sagarmatha’ name was given to the mountain… by Government of Nepal only in 1965. (Based on the prevailing local name) What do you think? Is it right for a country to name geography of another sovereign nation as they wish? Comment below.

Who was Edmund Hillary?

Hillary Step was named after Sir Edmund Hillary who was the first to reach the summit of Mount Everest in 1953.

Ed was a New Zealand mountaineer who served in the Royal New Zealand Air Force as a navigator during World War II.

Later in his life, Ed became the first person to reach both the North Pole and South Pole, as well as Mount Everest.

He founded the Himalayn Trust so that he could devote his life to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal.

The mountaineer died aged 88 in 2008 and was given a state funeral.

30 Interesting Facts About Mount Everest

Mount Everest, with an elevation of 8,848 meters (29,029 feet), is the highest mountain in the world. Mount Everest shapes like a giant pyramid. The towering image has been attracting explorers from all over the world. Here we collect 30 facts about Mount Everest that you might be interested in.

1. Other Names of Mount Everest

Tibetans call the highest peak Chomolungma or Qomolangma. It means Goddess Mother of Mountains. The Nepali name of Mount Everest is Sagarmatha, meaning Forehead in the Sky. The mountain is now part of the Sagarmatha National Park.

2. Mount Everest is Originally Named After an Englishman

Mount Everest has been named after George Everest - the director of the governmental Survey of India from 1830 to 1843, who was the first person to organize a team and measure the Himalayas Mountains. Thus, we call it today "Mount Everest". In 1841, this tall mountain was finally recognized for its specialty.

3. Radhanath Sikdar was the First person to Discover Mt Everest

Unlike how most people think, Mt Everest is not discovered by George Everest. Although the mountain is named after George Everest, he was not the first one to identify it as the tallest mountain in the world. Mt Everest was instead discovered by an Indian, Radhanath Sikdar, an Indian surveyor and a mathematician.

4. Mount Everest is in China and Nepal

Mt Everest is located between China and Nepal, China to the north, and Nepal to the south. It spreads across from the spectacular regions of Tibet to beautiful Nepal.

5. Mount Everest Has Two Heights

The snow cover height (total height) used in Nepal and other countries is 8,848 meters (29,029 feet). And the rock height announced officially by China is 8,844.43 meters (29,017.2 feet).

6. Mount Everest Camps

There are five other camps on the Chinese side,in addition to Everest base camp (5,150 meters /16,900 feet), Camp 1, at altitudes of 5,800 meters(19,028 feet), camp 2 - 6,500 meters (21,325 feet), camp 3 - 7,028 meters (23,057 feet), camp 4 - 7,790 meters (25,557 feet), and camp 5 - 8,300 meters (27,230 feet). There are four other camps on the Nepalese side despite the base camp (5,364 meters /17,598 feet). These camps are meant more as stations, breaks, or depots by climbers. And please no worry, you will find the camps while climbing down as well.

7. Mount Everest is Growing

It is estimated that the average height of Mt Everest increases by about 20

30 meters per 10,000 years. That's to say that the mountain continues to grow a height of 20cm per century.

8. Mount Everest is Not the Tallest Mountain

Although Mount Everest is the highest mountain on earth above sea level, the world's tallest mountain is Mauna Kea, an extinct volcano in Hawaii. The mountain extends 6,000 meters (20,000 feet) below sea level. If measured from the ocean floor, its total height would be 10,200 meters (33,465 feet), almost a full mile higher than Mount Everest.

9. Litte Known that Male Lion Hide at Mount Everest Top

A lama told Tenzin Nogai (the Nepalese who first climbed Mount Everest) that according to the scriptures, there was a golden lion at the top of Mount Everest. Tenzin Nogai did not find it because the golden lion was on the Tibetan side.

10. The Climate is Harsh

The lowest temperature at the summit of Mt Everest is minus 30 or 40 degrees Celsius all year round. The air at the summit contains only a quarter of the oxygen of the eastern plains. Winds can reach 200 miles an hour.

11. Mount Everest is 450 Million Years Old

Mount Everest has actually formed 450 million years ago, which is older than the Himalayas. The area where Mount Everest is found used to be an ocean. We can still see Marine life and shell fossils in the upper part of Mount Everest. The limestone and sandstone at Mt Everest peak were once part of an ocean floor sedimentary rock.

12. Above 8,000 Meters Region is Called the Death Zone

From Camp 4 to the mountain peak, mountaineers enter what is often called the "death zone." Over 8,000 meters (26,247 feet), 95% of climbers will experience Oxygen deficiency and extreme cold. Whereas, helicopters, rescue policies and GPS devices will be limited.

13. Over 300 People Died on Mount Everest

Since the first successful reaching the summit in 1953, more than 300 people have died in the Himalayas, mostly are Sherpa guides. Injury, altitude sickness, hypothermia are the main three causes and mainly during the descent.

14. It Costs USD30,000

130,000 to Climb Mt Everest

Tour companies charge visitors $30, 000 to $130, 000 or more to get permits, prepare equipment, find guides, and ensure contingency planning. This includes $11,000 paid directly to the Nepalese government. High-end luxury packages will also include up to five Sherpa guides for each mountaineer to meet customized needs such as an unlimited supply of oxygen tanks, more comfortable tents, and even hot showers.

15. Kami Rita Reached Everest Summit the Most Times

A Sherpas (A people scattered across the Himalayas on the borders of Nepal, China, India, and Bhutan.) - Kami Rita has reached the summit 24 times, holding the record for the most attempts. Two other admirable Sherpas, Apa Sherpa and Phurba Tashi, each of them have reached the summit 21 times. Several of Apa's expeditions have been devoted to raising awareness of climate change and protecting homes.

16. Edmund Hillary was the First People to Reach the Peak

The first people who climbed Mount Everest peak were Edmund Hillary from New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay from the Sherpa tribe of Nepal. They climbed the Everest peak on May 29 from the Nepal borders. Initially, Colonel John Hunt was the one to lead a British expedition to climb the Everest peak. Hillary and Tenzing were a part of this expedition. Eventually, they became the first ones that could successfully cover all the distance.

17. 7000 People Reached the Peak of Mt Everest Successfully

On an annual basis, around 800 people try to climb Mt Everest peak. More than 7,000 people have taken the challenge.

18. The Window to Reach the Summit - April, May, September

When can you climb Mount Everest? Well, it is hugely occupied by jet streams almost throughout the year. During those times climbing the mountain is next to impossible because of extremely low temperatures and strong winds. The winds are slower during the month of May and September. The months when the place sees the highest traffic are April and May. For mountaineers, this is the safest time. Another additional factor is that during this period, there is no harsh winter snowfall or dangerous monsoon falls.

19. 40 Days At Least to Reach the Mt Everest Peak

How much time do you think one takes to climb up to the Mt Everest peak? Well, count that in days and months. You will need three months to make the full journey. First, you are required 19 days just for the round trips of trekking to and from the Everest base camp. Once you have reached the Mount Everest base camp, you will be taking 40 extra days to wait for the best weather and reach the peak of Mt Everest.

20. Up to 18 Routes to Climb Mount Everest

So, how can you climb Mount Everest? There are not one but 18 routes overall for it. All of these routes are different but lead to the same destination. Out of all these, the most popular ones are the Northeast Ridge Standard Route and the South Colony Route.

21. Green Boots is Like a Wakeup Call

The owner of the green boots is Tsewang Paljor, an Indian mountaineer. Almost every mountaineer who climbs Mt Everest along the northeast ridge has previously passed by Green Boots on their way through the death zone at an altitude of about 8,500 meters. Today, the location is also known as the "Green Boot Cave," where many people take a break to catch their breath or recharge their batteries.

22. Climbing Mount Everest Doesn't Hold the Highest Death Rate in the Himalayas

Although Everest is the mountain with the most deaths, it is not the mountain with the highest mortality rate. Among the mountains with more than 1,000 climbers, Everest had a death rate of 1.37%, only the seventh-highest. Annapurna I had a 4.07% death rate, more than double of Everest's.

23. Disobey Guides Also Cause Death on Everest

The cause of death is not about traffic jams but about not listening to the guider's command. In recent years, as the number of climbers has risen, waiting to reach the summit has often led to long lines, leaving climbers with frostbite on their feet and hands, but not necessarily death. Those who died, for the most part, are stubborn and didn't follow the guidance.

24. Another Four 8000m Mountains Near Everest

Mt. Everest is part of the Himalayas. There are four other mountains near Everest, namely Makalu Mountain (8,463m), Cho Oyu Mountain (8,153m), Lhotse Mountain (8,501m), and Lhotse Shar Mountain(8,393m). Everest Mountain is the third.

25. Jordan Romero Peaked on Everest at Thirteen

The youngest climber to reach the summit was an American, Jordan Romero, only 13. He reached the peak from the North slope on May 23, 2010.

26. Peaking on Mt Everest Without an Oxygen Supply Takes Up 2.7% of the Total

Overall, at the top of Mount Everest, each breath typically takes in about 66 percent less oxygen than at sea level. But Rennard Messner and Peter Harper (Italy) did not use oxygen cylinders when they reached the summit in 1978. Following their example, 193 mountaineers reached the summit without using oxygen tanks.

27. The First Woman Climbed Mt. Everest - Junko Tanabe

On May 16, 1975, Japanese Junko Tanabe climbed from the south slope and became the first woman to climb Mount Everest in the world. In the same year, Tibetan Pando became the first woman to climb from the northern slope.

28. The Highest Dispute in History

In 2013, three mountaineering enthusiasts Ueli Steck, Simone Moro and Jonathan Griffith continued ignoring the Sherpa's order of rest but kept climbing. Their behaviors angered the local Sherpa people, which caused a fierce dispute. Finally, the two sides signed a peace agreement in the presence of a Nepalese military officer.

29. Traffic Jams On Mount Everest

More and more attempts to reach the top of Mount Everest have resulted in a large number of climbers getting stuck near the summit.

In just half a day on May 19, 2012, 234 people made it to the summit, but four died trying to descend. The incident makes people raise safety awareness.

30. Months’ Physical Training Is Necessary

If you are serious about climbing Mount Everest, make sure that you have a professional guide with you. You will also need months, if not years, of training before climbing the peak.

Everest Timeline

By Borgna Brunner

The Great Trigonometrical Survey of India establishes that "Peak XV" in the Himalayas is the highest mountain in the world.

Called Chomolungma in Tibet and Sagarmatha in Nepal, the world's highest mountain is named after Sir George Everest, the British Surveyor General from 1830-1843.

The 13th Dalai Lama opens Tibet to foreigners. British reconnaissance party leaves Darjeeling to explore a route to Mt. Everest from the Tibetan side.

First attempt to climb Mt. Everest made by a British team which included George Mallory.

The first recorded deaths on Everest occur when seven Sherpa porters, part of a British expedition, die in an avalanche.

George Mallory, 38, and Andrew Irvine, 22, disappear on their way to the summit. They were last spotted by a member of the expedition, who reported they "were going strong for the top." Whether they reached the summit remains a mystery.

Swiss climber Raymond Lambert and renowned Sherpa climber Tenzing Norgay almost make it to the South Summit before turning back.

First summit of Everest accomplished by Edmund Hillary, New Zealand, for the British Commonwealth, and Tenzing Norgay, a Sherpa from India. Neither will ever acknowledge which of them was technically the first.

The height of Mt. Everest is adjusted by 26 feet to 29,028 feet (8,848 m) from the original measurements of the 1852 Great Trigonometrical Survey of India.

The first American, James Whittaker, summits Everest.

Junko Tabei (Japan) becomes the first woman to summit.

Reinhold Messner (Italy) and Peter Habeler (Austria) make the first ascent without supplemental oxygen.

Reinhold Messner makes the first solo ascent of Everest (also without supplemental oxygen).

15 climbers died on Everest ? the most casualties in a single year.

George Mallory's body is found by a search expedition at 27,000 feet. Searchers had hoped to find a camera that might contain photos of Mallory and Irvine on the summit or some other proof that they were the first to summit Everest, but no evidence is found. On May 5 a team of nine made satellite observations at the summit of Everest.

On Nov. 11, the revised official elevation of Everest is announced by the National Geographic Society to be 29,035 feet (8,850 meters).

142 climbers make it to the summit?the most ever in a single year.

American Erik Weihenmayer becomes the first blind person to reach Everest's top.

At 70, Japanese climber Yuichiro Miura becomes the oldest person ever to reach Everest's summit, and a 15-year-old Sherpa girl, Ming Kipa, becomes the youngest.

Appa Sherpa climbs Everest for the 16th time, breaking his own record for being the person who has climbed Everest the most. He first summited in 1989.

Takao Arayama displaces Yuichiro Miura's record and becomes the oldest Everest climber at 70 years, 7 months, and 13 days. Miura was 70 years, 7 months, and 10 days.

The first cellphone call is made from the top of Everest by Rod Baber, a British climber. "It's cold, it's fantastic, and the Himalayas are everywhere," he said in the call.

Katsusuke Yanagisawa, 71, becomes the oldest person to scale Everest, beating the previous record set by Takao Arayama, 70, in 2006. He is the third Japanese in recent years to set a record as the oldest Everest climber.

Clare O'Leary becomes the first Irishwoman to summit Everest and Pat Falvey becomes the first Irishman to summit from both the Nepalese and Tibetan sides.

On May 8, the Olympic torch was carried by climbers to the ?roof of the world,? reaching the 29,035 foot summit of Mount Everest at 0920 local time. During the ascent, Tibetan women were the first and last to carry the torch.

On May 22, Apa, a veteran Sherpa guide, climbed to the top of Mount Everest for the 18th time at age 47, beating his own record for the most summits of the world's tallest mountain.

Nepali national Min Bahadur Sherchan, 76, became the oldest person to summit Everest on May 25.

The May 2009 climbing season witnessed the 19th successful trip for Apa Sherpa as a member of the Eco Everest Expedition, while Dave Hahn of Taos, New Mexico reached a milestone when he summited for the 11th time, the most for a non-Sherpa.

Apa Sherpa broke his own world record and reached the summit of Mt. Everest for the 20th time on 22 May 2010.

On May 22, Jordan Romero, a 13-year-old from California, became the youngest person to summit Everest.

The mountain claimed its first climber on May 9 Shailendra Kumar Upadhyay, 81, an ex-foreign minister from Nepal died during his attempt to become the oldest summiter of the great mountain.

Apa Sherpa again broke his own world record and reached the summit of Mt. Everest for the 21st time on 11 May 2011.

On May 21, John Delaney, 41, from Kilcock, Co Kildare, became the first Irishman to die on Mt. Everest?just 50m from the summit, and only days after his wife gave birth to their third child.

Japan's Tamae Watanabe, 73, became the oldest woman to reach the summit of Mt. Everest on May 19, 2012. She successfully climbed Everest in 2002 at age 63.

The estimated 600 summits in the spring of 2013 brought the total estimated summits to 6,800.

Phurba Tashi joined Apa Sherpa in the record books with 21 summits.

On May 23, Japanese Miura Yiuchiro became the oldest person to summit at age 80.

Sixteen Sherpa guides die in an avalanche in April. They were fixing ropes for climbers at an elevation of 19,000 feet when the avalanche hit. It is the single most deadly accident on Everest. After the incident, dozens of Sherpa guides walked off the job in protest over the Nepalese government's response to the tragedy. The government pledged a relief sum of around $400 to the families of the guides who died in the avalanche. The Sherpa guides were angered by the relief sum, calling it an insult.

On April 25, 2015, at least 22 people die and dozens are injured in an avalanche triggered by a magnitude-7.8 earthquake in central Nepal. It is the deadliest avalanche ever recorded on Mount Everest and devastates the country?killing 8,500 nationwide. For the first time in 41 years, there are no summits.

The climbers are back on the mountain, including two Iraq war veterans who lost right legs to roadside bombs, hoping to become the first combat amputees to reach the top of Mount Everest.

According to Everest statistics compiler Alan Arnette, it currently costs an average $45,000 to climb Everest, but depending on customization and route choices, the price tag can be as high as $85,000.