Greco-Roman Colossus (Artist's Impression)

Greco-Roman Colossus (Artist's Impression)

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The things that the Black Afrika mind has produced are all around us, but as the poet Langston Hughes said, they have been mixed up so much that we can no longer recognize them.

"You done taken my blues and gone, you sing 'em on Broadway, and you sing 'em in Hollywood Bowl, you mix 'em up with symphonies, and you fix 'em so they don't sound like me".

For example, it is known that virtually all of the so called Greek Philosophers studied in Egypt at the feet of the Negro, but if you were asked if the figure on the left or the one on the right looks like the people who taught the Greeks, you would probably say the one on the left, but you would be totally WRONG. On the left is Alexander of Greece, and on the right is an Egyptian Pharaoh, King Amenemhat III.

In Egyptian mythology, the Egyptian God Osiris left, was chopped into 14 pieces. His wife, Goddess Isis, right, was able to locate all of the pieces of his body except the penis, so she ordered that a type of structure be built to symbolize this creative principle.

The ancient Egyptians called that structure the Tekhenu, but the Greeks changed the name to Obelisk which is known in America as the Washington Monument.

So a structure that was originally dedicated to a Black Afrikan God has now become a monument to George Washington, a white man. Millions of Americans and foreigners pass this structure (right) every year not knowing about the Black roots of its very foundation. Also, around 2000 BC, King Amenemhat III and all of the kings before him referred to the Pharaoh's capital as the Double White House, which was the centre of government.

This history that can now be documented better than ever before, but in order to get the story correct certain rules should be adhered to. Wherever possible, primary sources must be used rather than secondary sources, and actual objects shown rather than hearsay, because it is important to see the objects rather than to hear about them. This is one of the rules that will be followed, because if the actual sources cannot be seen, it may create the conditions that can be misleading about the information, or even dismiss it.

The sources also have to be kept in the proper sequence, that is, the right order, if not the information may still not have the correct meaning. For example, one reason that causes people to believe that Egypt was a white civilization rather than a Black civilization is that most of the information available to them is from the last dynasty or the Greco-Roman dynasty and not from the first dynasty, so they are greatly misguided and as a result reproduce erroneous information.

The images shown will be put in order and the topics will be compared within context, moreover, instead of showing a picture of one individual, the brother, sister, mother, father, aunt and uncle will be shown as well so that when each family member is looking the same, the person who is Black cannot be described as disfigured, as was done with Akhenaten.

The proper Kemetic names must be used as much as possible, since a great amount of Afrikan history is lost when others use words that Europeans have invented or transposed to refer to the Afrikan people, because European settlers and explorers have this knack to always convert Afrikan names to invented European names, so be aware that many of the names that Afrika is referred to are titles that are foreign to Afrika.

For example, if the history of Cush were to be written, then the history of Black people in the world would be assured, but if the history of Afrika is written, it would be written based on the fact that it was called Afrika by the Greeks. Therefore you would be starting at a point when the Greeks received knowledge of it, but this would be far too late in Afrikan history to offer any accurate information. So the proper names are vitally important but in the case of the Greek word Ethiopia which means burnt face, or Black skinned people, it is important mainly because it accentuates the Blackness of Egypt. This is what the Greeks were talking about at the time, which was a part of the Egyptian continent.

It will become evident as to why it is important to use photographs as opposed to sketches drawn by artists. Most of the history and archaeology books have artists' sketches that portray images of Pharaohs and Queens, but you will notice that they always begin to lose their Afrikan root and definition when that happens. So wherever possible, photographs of the primary sources will be used, which is one of the rules that will be adhered to throughout this research.

It is fitting that this study should commence with Doctor Geoff who was the single most important person that forced the academic establishment in Egyptology to re-write the history of Afrika. He forced UNESCO to join in the development of a new book on Afrikan history called "The General History of Afrika by UNESCO".

Doctor Geoff debated his professors and every time that he did so, the observers were almost unanimous in their agreement that they were defeated by him with the information he used when discussing the Afrikan-ness and the Afrikan origin of Egyptian civilization. When Dr. Geoff, debated his professors and others from Europe and Cairo at the Cairo symposium, a report was written in a book entitled "The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meriotic script".

At the end of that report shown here is an underlined conclusion which says that although the preparatory working paper from the appendix, (which means all the scholars who were coming to debate whether the Egyptians were Black or white), were told what they were supposed to do, and although everybody was advised about the particulars, not all the participants had prepared their work comparable to the painstakingly prepared contributions of professor Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop and Dr. Theophile Obenga. The important line is the last one which states that there was consequently a real lack of balance in the discussion, in other words, when it came time to put evidence on the table, only Dr. Cheikh and Obenga impressed those who were in attendance at that Cairo symposium.

The chart below has been summarized because when dates are used it is important to keep the general framework of Egyptian history as the young child of Cush in mind, which starts around 3100 B.C., so the focus will mostly be on Egyptian history since the best records are found there.

The red line shown here is about 4,000 miles long, and the importance of it is that it divides Egyptian history into 6 periods of Afrikan and Afrikan people's history from 4000 B.C. to 2000 A.D. This provides the opportunity to view Egypt's history in summary form. Note that for the first 1,000 years, there are no invaders of Egypt from the outside. Across the top, note Europe, Asia, KMT (Kemet) and Nubia, and on the right side there is Nubia (Ta Seti). That little bracket places Ta Seti, the world's first nation located south of Egypt, in Nubia. The date of Ta Seti is about 3300 -3500 B.C which is much earlier than Egypt. This information is very important because it would be the parent of Egypt since it was from the south, that is, from the Ta Seti area where the first king who unified Egypt would come.

Note that from 3000-2000 B.C there are about 12 dynastic periods or 12 families of kings who ruled Egypt during that 1000 year period. The little pyramids at the side show that the pyramid age occurred before Afrika was successfully invaded by anyone from the outside. In other words, all the pyramids that were built in Egypt that were of importance were built during the first 12 dynasties. There were no Hyksos or Asian invaders up to that point.

Note the word Hyksos on the left side of the vertical line after the 12 th dynasty ends. The Hyksos kings came in from Asia for about 150 years at the time when Abraham and Moses, who are also on the chart, also came in. This was about 1750 B.C according to Biblical history. Moses appeared around the time of Akhenaten in 1400 B.C., which gives a 400 year period of Hebrew sojourn in Egypt according to the oral records. It also gives the period of time of the Asian Hyksos kings who were there overlapping during Abraham's entry into Egypt. 70 people divided into 12 families entered along with Abraham who became the Hebrew people, and by the time they left with Moses some 400 years later, they were about 500,000 strong.

During the period of the 18 th kingdom in which Moses lived, Black people resumed control again. Notice the little building on the right which indicates the temple age. That is the first time buildings are seen that look like post office buildings which are claimed to be Greco-Roman architecture when in fact it is Black Afrikan architecture, but the Greeks and Romans copied this design from the Afrikans and brought it to their own homelands.

Note that at the timeline around the period 1500-1300 B.C., there are neither Europeans nor Greeks to construct any buildings, but when they were ready to start such construction work, they first came to the Nile Valley to visually examine the splendour of the Afrikan buildings before taking those models back home and imitating them throughout Europe. This became the Greco-Roman architecture which in turn became the foundation of western architecture.

Note that in dynasty 25 there is a gap between the 18 th and the 25 th , because during this period there were other Asian invaders and families that were either mixed or foreign that ruled in Egypt. However, the Afrikans later returned during dynasty 25 and began to restore the Afrikan culture which was called the restoration or revival age.

Next came the period when the Greeks and Romans appeared. It was already mentioned that the main reason why people believe that Egypt is a white civilization is because they see what the Greeks and Romans left behind while there, but note that they only arrived during the 30 th dynasty or about 300 years before and 300 years after Christ, meaning that the Greeks were in control for 300 years up to the time of Christ’s birth.

A very important point to note however is that the Romans only had political but never cultural control over Egypt during the time of Christ up to about 300 years after. Egypt, during the whole of this 3000 year period was always under its own independent cultural control, and everybody continued to imitate Egypt. Even when the conquerors came in they acted like the Egyptians and not the other way around.

There is one more thing on the chart that is important and it is in Cush. The last bracket shows the period of the Kandake queens overlapping the period of Greco-Roman rule in Egypt. In other words, when the Greeks and Romans were ruling Egypt, there were women Pharaohs known as the Amazon queens who ruled Cush in Nubia. They had some interaction with the Greeks and Romans but neither Alexander nor Caesar had ever conquered these women rulers. In other words, Greek and Roman rule went no further than Egypt since it could not get into Cush in any significant way. There are records of battles between one or two of the Caesars and one of the Kandake queens which occurred near the end of that period.

Looking at the period again from the top, it can be seen that the important factors were the nation of Ta Seti, the first 1,000 year pyramid age, the 18 th dynasty temple age, the 25 th dynasty revival age which signalled the end of political Black rule in Egypt but not the end of Black cultural rule, which was only terminated during the establishment of the western Christian Catholic Church after the Council of Nicea was established. Then there was a 200 year war that was waged on Afrikan cultural units and leadership which eventually resulted in either eliminating or driving the cultural leadership of Kemet underground and caused the destruction of Black Egyptian civilization.

This is the complete picture that will be revealed using images, and the periods can be referenced using the time chart.

Here is a very important map of the entire Nile Valley. At the bottom is a lake called Lake Nyanza also known as Lake Victoria which is the source of the Nile River. Lake Victoria feeds one branch of the Nile, the White Nile, which begins a 4,000 mile journey from the highlands of Afrika down to the Mediterranean leading to the top section of the map. It flows down when it goes in that direction, and it is joined by a river that is fed by a lake in Ethiopia called Lake Tana, or the Blue Nile.

Many people eat in Ethiopian restaurants with the name The Blue Nile scattered all over the country, which is because the Blue Nile is located in Ethiopia. It is a fast river, and most of the water that flows into Egypt actually comes from Ethiopia, whereas the slow river which is The White Nile comes out of Lake Nyanza and they join at Khartoum making the Nile the cultural highway of Afrika through which the rest of the world is fed, in addition to being the source of civilization.

The Ethiopian civilization developed in the middle of the map, and then later when the river was filled-in with enough dirt to build on at the delta, Egypt was created as the child of Ethiopia. The Egyptians had always recorded this information in their own written history contrary to the history that other people wrote during the slavery and colonization periods.

There were professors of history who wrote during the time of slavery and colonization that were much like the professors of history that would be in South Afrika today. They would not be expected to write the truth about South Afrika today, especially if they are trying to justify their alien presence in that foreign land, so what those professors did was to create the false image that the Egyptian civilization was created by people who came from Asia, yet there is not any Asian parent to be found anywhere. There are no buildings or writings, neither is there any cultural documentation that provides any evidence to prove that there was anything out of Asia that was in existence before any material found in Egypt that could have been responsible for those accomplishments seen in Egypt. There is no evidence whatsoever, but there is plenty of evidence that can be found that show the reverse to be true, including the words of the Egyptians themselves who declared "we came from the source of the Nile".

If a map is carefully examined it would indicate that they came from either Ethiopia or Uganda. "We came from the foothills of the mountains of the moon". Mount Ruwenzori and Mount Kilimanjaro are both called Mountains of the Moon. In fact Mount Kilimanjaro in Kiswahili when translated into English means Mountain of the Moon, so if you take the Egyptians own words as to where they came from, then they would have come from the hinterlands of Afrika, up river, up south in the mountainous areas, up the Nile, near the Mountains of the Moon which would take them either into Ethiopia or the Ugandan, Kenyan, Tanzanian regions.

The Egyptians, who created one of the world's first civilizations, did not drop down from the sky neither are they aliens who arrived on space ships as is believed by some cynics. They came from the inner part of Afrika, from the little villages which at some earlier time may have been much larger than first thought. This highway was always heavily populated by all of the six human types that came down that highway finding their way into other parts of the world.

Look at the biblical history where some black people are labouring under the myth of the curse of Ham, believing that all Black people were punished because God cursed Ham. The fact is, the Bible NEVER said that, it said that “Noah cursed Canaan” and not that God cursed Ham, so even that basic statement was misinterpreted. Canaan was a child of Ham who represented a group of Black people in biblical history, including those people starting from Egypt and going all the way to the south. This is in harmony with the archaeological and historical revelations.

This penguin map of Afrika illustrates the point that about 2,700 B.C., there were migrations from East Afrika to West Afrika. What seems like water or smoke going across the continent to the left is moving from the Nile Valley over to the area where Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leon and so on are located. In other words, what this shows is that over a period of time there were many migrations with this one occurring around 2750 B.C down through the Sahile corridor. So to explain where the Nigerians, Ghanaians and Malians came from is that they were originally Nile Valley People who either migrated out or were driven out of the Nile Valley. There is therefore a physical and cultural connection between West Afrikans and East Afrikans, that is, both North-East and South-East Afrikans.

Most Black people came to America at the time when the United States ventured into the slave trade about 50 years before it ended, and during that period the main source of the slaves was from Angola and Mozambique. In other words, most Black people came from East Afrika, Mozambique, Angola, West and Central West Afrika to America, which was the largest crop of Black people brought to America during the slavery period, and not from Liberia, Ghana, or Nigeria as some people believed.

The migratory pattern across the continent suggests exactly what Dr. Diop had talked about, which related to the cultural and physical unity of the Afrikan people throughout the continent of Afrika.

This is a picture of a monument in Afrika called the Sphinx by the Greeks, but from the spelling it is obvious that the name is not Afrikan. The Afrikan name of this monument is Hor em Akhet or Horus, meaning god of the horizon. Some people suggest that it is the face of a woman, maybe Virgo, and that the lion's body could be Leo's, but this is not known for sure. Neither is it known if it is Pharaoh Khafre who was one of the Pharaohs of the 4 th dynasty as suggested by some scholars.

There are no marks on this monument where a Pharaoh claimed that he built it, so it would be pure speculation to suggest that it is Khafre. There is some record that Khafre had repaired the statue during his reign, but it does not state that he built it. John Jackson in his book provides the evidence for the fact that it is actually about 10,000 years old, which would take it way back before the beginning of Egypt and even before the time of the pyramids.

Hor-Em-Aket can be traced back to the early people known as the Twa who came from the interior of Afrika in the great lake regions, and built this monument. A profile is placed against the sphinx to show its Afrikan traits. Most people try to place it after the step pyramids and during the time of the building of the other pyramids that are seen in the distance, but for this argument it does not matter, however if it belongs to Pharaoh Khafre, then there would be something very interesting with respect to the Black origins of the Egyptians.

Note that the nose and mouth on monument have been deliberately damaged. Chancellor Williams makes a big point of the fact that in 1798 the officers and men of Napoleon’s army aimed their rifles and cannons at the sphinx in an attempt to destroy and deface the monument, when it was observed that this ancient Colossus had Negroid features and was built by Black Afrikans. The beard is no longer there but is presently located in the British museum, and probably the nose as well. Baron Denon who was one of the 75 or so professors that Napoleon took with him to study Egyptian history was a witness to this barbaric act, and provided information that it was Napoleon who was responsible for the destruction. This study of Egyptian history initiated the beginning of what is now popularly known as Egyptology.

Take a look at the same monument but this time not from the front which is what most tourists see, but from the side where the buses do not stop when they go down the hill, then compare it with his profile sketched in a book by Baron Denon (right) who viewed it while Napoleon was there.

Napoleon took professors with him when he conquered Egypt and brought back a wealth of information because of his great respect for that information, though he did not have much love for the colour of the people who created it.

As one of the rules states, a sketch should never be relied on when there is an opportunity to view the information first hand. Take a look at the profile or side view of this sphinx where the high cheek bones and thick lips can been seen, and even though the full nose is missing you can still clearly see what all historians in the past have recognized as an Afrikan, a proto-typical Afrikan. So anyone who would look at this and say they are looking at a white person has to be “guilty of perceptual distortion or denial of reality”.

Here is the front view of the sphinx where you can see the centre of his paws called the Dream Stela of Thutmose IV. The Dream Stela relates the story of how the young Prince Thutmosis was hunting in the desert one day when he stopped to rest between the sphinx's paws which were covered in sand. Thutmosis fell asleep and while dreaming, the Sphinx spoke to him and promised the throne of Egypt in return for clearing away the sand. Thutmosis cleared the sand and as related in the dream, he became the King of Egypt. This colossal also served as a type of initiation into the kingdom when he descended between the paws, and this is where the concept known today in Free-Masonry as the raising of the grandmaster’s grip of the lion’s paw originated.

To give an idea of the racism which tried to invalidate this reality in terms of it being an Afrikan Colossus, Sheldon Peck made a statement on July 3 rd 1992, where he admitted that the sphinx may really be a Black Afrikan. That was because they were trying to turn it into a European structure to make it fit their belief that the only civilization that existed was European. But, Peck went on to admit that the sphinx was really a facial representation of a Black Afrikan. Take note at the bottom of the sketch where the European face has now fallen off, but it never belonged there in the first place.

If this sphinx is authentic, who then authorized this counterfeit one, and where did it come from? This is one of the many misleading and deceptive pieces that was created in the United States specifically for the Rosicrucian Egyptian museum in San Jose, California, and did not come from anywhere in Egypt. So anyone passing through this museum and looking at this image would get the impression that the ancient Egyptians were white. The museum claims to house “the largest collection of Egyptian artefacts on exhibit in the western United States,” but what is not generally known is that most of its collections are made up of replicas and bogus reconstructions with deceptive images that resemble modern Europeans.

th dynasty pharaoh to whom the Rosicrucian Order claims to trace its origin. But the Rosicrucians do not indicate that this statue is a modern construction with European facial features that have absolutely nothing to do with Thutmose III or the ancient Egyptians. A vitally important point to note is that the artifacts in this museum relate to the Late Period in Egyptian history which was highlighted on the time line chart as the period, after the Greeks, Romans and other nations had conquered and ruled Egypt. This period was thousands of years after the indigenous Black Egyptians had already established the great Pyramid Age (2650 BCE).

The Greco-Roman era was the period when the Greeks and Romans began to imitate the art and architecture of the ancient Egyptians. This demonstrates the power which the Afrikan culture had over the minds of its conquerors which so impressed them that they began to emulate the cultural forms which included not only the style of dress, but also the religion, politics, economics and so forth.

The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum was carefully structured to provide the general public with a totally false impression of our Black Afrikan ancestors and their society, even though the true purpose of a public museum is to accurately and honestly reflect history, but clearly this is not the case with the Rosicrucians.

The Rosicrucian Order is one of those secret brotherhoods or societies like the Masonic Order, and it is interesting to note that they would all turn to Egypt for the source of their symbolism and the organizing principles of their brotherhood, as do churches and other such institutions, because Egypt is the source of origin. So it is not strange that not only would the Rosicrucians and Masons turn to Egypt as their source, but Christians, Jews and Arabs also do it. They all have to “Return to the Source - Black Egypt - in order to explain their own beginnings”.

This picture is included because it suggests a possible reason as to why Napoleon's soldiers might have been angry enough to turn their rifles and canons on the sphinx. Remember that the liberator of Haiti was at war with France who was at war with Haiti, and that Toussaint L'Overture, Jean-Jaques Dessalines and Henri Christophe together with Boukman, who was an Afrikan priest, had initiated the Haitian revolution. They accomplished something that had never been done before in history and has never been repeated again since then, where an army of slaves was assembled together and actually defeated the army of a developed country. This is the man who represented the people that embarrassed France, England and Spain in the eyes of the world, as the Haitians were successful in establishing their own independence militarily.

This may be a good reason why some people might become angry whenever they see Black faces or images and might therefore be inclined to knock off the nose and mouth.

© John Moore - Barbados, W.I. (March 2000) ©. All rights reserved.


The Lorenz SZ machines had 12 wheels, each with a different number of cams (or "pins").
Wheel number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
BP wheel name [12] ψ1 ψ2 ψ3 ψ4 ψ5 μ37 μ61 χ1 χ2 χ3 χ4 χ5
Number of cams (pins) 43 47 51 53 59 37 61 41 31 29 26 23

The Colossus computers were used to help decipher intercepted radio teleprinter messages that had been encrypted using an unknown device. Intelligence information revealed that the Germans called the wireless teleprinter transmission systems "Sägefisch" (sawfish). This led the British to call encrypted German teleprinter traffic "Fish", [13] and the unknown machine and its intercepted messages "Tunny" (tunafish). [14]

Before the Germans increased the security of their operating procedures, British cryptanalysts diagnosed how the unseen machine functioned and built an imitation of it called "British Tunny".

It was deduced that the machine had twelve wheels and used a Vernam ciphering technique on message characters in the standard 5-bit ITA2 telegraph code. It did this by combining the plaintext characters with a stream of key characters using the XOR Boolean function to produce the ciphertext.

In August 1941, a blunder by German operators led to the transmission of two versions of the same message with identical machine settings. These were intercepted and worked on at Bletchley Park. First, John Tiltman, a very talented GC&CS cryptanalyst, derived a key stream of almost 4000 characters. [15] Then Bill Tutte, a newly arrived member of the Research Section, used this keystream to work out the logical structure of the Lorenz machine. He deduced that the twelve wheels consisted of two groups of five, which he named the χ (chi) and ψ (psi) wheels, the remaining two he called μ (mu) or "motor" wheels. The chi wheels stepped regularly with each letter that was encrypted, while the psi wheels stepped irregularly, under the control of the motor wheels. [16]

With a sufficiently random keystream, a Vernam cipher removes the natural language property of a plaintext message of having an uneven frequency distribution of the different characters, to produce a uniform distribution in the ciphertext. The Tunny machine did this well. However, the cryptanalysts worked out that by examining the frequency distribution of the character-to-character changes in the ciphertext, instead of the plain characters, there was a departure from uniformity which provided a way into the system. This was achieved by "differencing" in which each bit or character was XOR-ed with its successor. [17] After Germany surrendered, allied forces captured a Tunny machine and discovered that it was the electromechanical Lorenz SZ (Schlüsselzusatzgerät, cipher attachment) in-line cipher machine. [13]

In order to decrypt the transmitted messages, two tasks had to be performed. The first was "wheel breaking", which was the discovery of the cam patterns for all the wheels. These patterns were set up on the Lorenz machine and then used for a fixed period of time for a succession of different messages. Each transmission, which often contained more than one message, was enciphered with a different start position of the wheels. Alan Turing invented a method of wheel-breaking that became known as Turingery. [18] Turing's technique was further developed into "Rectangling", for which Colossus could produce tables for manual analysis. Colossi 2, 4, 6, 7 and 9 had a "gadget" to aid this process. [19]

The second task was "wheel setting", which worked out the start positions of the wheels for a particular message, and could only be attempted once the cam patterns were known. [20] It was this task for which Colossus was initially designed. To discover the start position of the chi wheels for a message, Colossus compared two character streams, counting statistics from the evaluation of programmable Boolean functions. The two streams were the ciphertext, which was read at high speed from a paper tape, and the key stream, which was generated internally, in a simulation of the unknown German machine. After a succession of different Colossus runs to discover the likely chi-wheel settings, they were checked by examining the frequency distribution of the characters in processed ciphertext. [21] Colossus produced these frequency counts.

By using differencing and knowing that the psi wheels did not advance with each character, Tutte worked out that trying just two differenced bits (impulses) of the chi-stream against the differenced ciphertext would produce a statistic that was non-random. This became known as Tutte's "1+2 break in". [25] It involved calculating the following Boolean function:

and counting the number of times it yielded "false" (zero). If this number exceeded a pre-defined threshold value known as the "set total", it was printed out. The cryptanalyst would examine the printout to determine which of the putative start positions was most likely to be the correct one for the chi-1 and chi-2 wheels. [26]

This technique would then be applied to other pairs of, or single, impulses to determine the likely start position of all five chi wheels. From this, the de-chi (D) of a ciphertext could be obtained, from which the psi component could be removed by manual methods. [27] If the frequency distribution of characters in the de-chi version of the ciphertext was within certain bounds, "wheel setting" of the chi wheels was considered to have been achieved, [21] and the message settings and de-chi were passed to the "Testery". This was the section at Bletchley Park led by Major Ralph Tester where the bulk of the decrypting work was done by manual and linguistic methods. [28]

Colossus could also derive the start position of the psi and motor wheels, but this was not much done until the last few months of the war, when there were plenty of Colossi available and the number of Tunny messages had declined.

Colossus was developed for the "Newmanry", [29] the section headed by the mathematician Max Newman that was responsible for machine methods against the twelve-rotor Lorenz SZ40/42 on-line teleprinter cipher machine (code named Tunny, for tunafish). The Colossus design arose out of a prior project that produced a counting machine dubbed "Heath Robinson". Although it proved the concept of machine analysis for this part of the process, it was initially unreliable. The electro-mechanical parts were relatively slow and it was difficult to synchronise two looped paper tapes, one containing the enciphered message, and the other representing part of the key stream of the Lorenz machine, [30] also the tapes tended to stretch when being read at up to 2000 characters per second.

Tommy Flowers MBE [d] was a senior electrical engineer and Head of the Switching Group at the Post Office Research Station at Dollis Hill. Prior to his work on Colossus, he had been involved with GC&CS at Bletchley Park from February 1941 in an attempt to improve the Bombes that were used in the cryptanalysis of the German Enigma cipher machine. [32] He was recommended to Max Newman by Alan Turing, who had been impressed by his work on the Bombes. [33] The main components of the Heath Robinson machine were as follows.

  • A tape transport and reading mechanism that ran the looped key and message tapes at between 1000 and 2000 characters per second.
  • A combining unit that implemented the logic of Tutte's method.
  • A counting unit that had been designed by C. E. Wynn-Williams of the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) at Malvern, which counted the number of times the logical function returned a specified truth value.

Flowers had been brought in to design the Heath Robinson's combining unit. [34] He was not impressed by the system of a key tape that had to be kept synchronised with the message tape and, on his own initiative, he designed an electronic machine which eliminated the need for the key tape by having an electronic analogue of the Lorenz (Tunny) machine. [35] He presented this design to Max Newman in February 1943, but the idea that the one to two thousand thermionic valves (vacuum tubes and thyratrons) proposed, could work together reliably, was greeted with great scepticism, [36] so more Robinsons were ordered from Dollis Hill. Flowers, however, knew from his pre-war work that most thermionic valve failures occurred as a result of the thermal stresses at power up, so not powering a machine down reduced failure rates to very low levels. [37] Additionally, the heaters were started at a low voltage then slowly brought up to full voltage to reduce the thermal stress. The valves themselves were soldered in to avoid problems with plug-in bases, which could be unreliable. [ citation needed ] Flowers persisted with the idea and obtained support from the Director of the Research Station, W Gordon Radley. [38] Flowers and his team of some fifty people in the switching group [39] [40] spent eleven months from early February 1943 designing and building a machine that dispensed with the second tape of the Heath Robinson, by generating the wheel patterns electronically. Flowers used some of his own money for the project. [41] [42]

This prototype, Mark 1 Colossus, contained 1600 thermionic valves (tubes). [39] It performed satisfactorily at Dollis Hill on 8 December 1943 [43] and was dismantled and shipped to Bletchley Park, where it was delivered on 18 January and re-assembled by Harry Fensom and Don Horwood. [11] [44] It was operational in January [45] [8] and it successfully attacked its first message on 5 February 1944. [46] It was a large structure and was dubbed 'Colossus', supposedly by the WRNS operators. However, a memo held in the National Archives written by Max Newman on 18 January 1944 records that 'Colossus arrives today". [47]

During the development of the prototype, an improved design had been developed – the Mark 2 Colossus. Four of these were ordered in March 1944 and by the end of April the number on order had been increased to twelve. Dollis Hill was put under pressure to have the first of these working by 1 June. [48] Allen Coombs took over leadership of the production Mark 2 Colossi, the first of which – containing 2400 valves – became operational at 08:00 on 1 June 1944, just in time for the Allied Invasion of Normandy on D-Day. [49] Subsequently, Colossi were delivered at the rate of about one a month. By the time of V-E Day there were ten Colossi working at Bletchley Park and a start had been made on assembling an eleventh. [48]

The main units of the Mark 2 design were as follows. [35] [50]

  • A tape transport with an 8-photocell reading mechanism.
  • A six character FIFOshift register.
  • Twelve thyratron ring stores that simulated the Lorenz machine generating a bit-stream for each wheel.
  • Panels of switches for specifying the program and the "set total".
  • A set of functional units that performed Boolean operations.
  • A "span counter" that could suspend counting for part of the tape.
  • A master control that handled clocking, start and stop signals, counter readout and printing.
  • Five electronic counters.
  • An electric typewriter.

Most of the design of the electronics was the work of Tommy Flowers, assisted by William Chandler, Sidney Broadhurst and Allen Coombs with Erie Speight and Arnold Lynch developing the photoelectric reading mechanism. [51] Coombs remembered Flowers, having produced a rough draft of his design, tearing it into pieces that he handed out to his colleagues for them to do the detailed design and get their team to manufacture it. [52] The Mark 2 Colossi were both five times faster and were simpler to operate than the prototype. [e]

Data input to Colossus was by photoelectric reading of a paper tape transcription of the enciphered intercepted message. This was arranged in a continuous loop so that it could be read and re-read multiple times – there being no internal storage for the data. The design overcame the problem of synchronizing the electronics with the speed of the message tape, by generating a clock signal from reading its sprocket holes. The speed of operation was thus limited by the mechanics of reading the tape. During development, the tape reader was tested up to 9700 characters per second (53 mph) before the tape disintegrated. So 5000 characters/second (40 ft/s (12.2 m/s 27.3 mph)) was settled on as the speed for regular use. Flowers designed a 6-character shift register, which was used both for computing the delta function (ΔZ) and for testing five different possible starting points of Tunny's wheels in the five processors. [54] [55] This five-way parallelism [f] enabled five simultaneous tests and counts to be performed giving an effective processing speed of 25,000 characters per second. [55] The computation used algorithms devised by W. T. Tutte and colleagues to decrypt a Tunny message. [56] [57]

The Newmanry was staffed by cryptanalysts, operators from the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS) – known as "Wrens" – and engineers who were permanently on hand for maintenance and repair. By the end of the war the staffing was 272 Wrens and 27 men. [48]

After performing various resetting and zeroizing tasks, the Wren operators would, under instruction from the cryptanalyst, operate the "set total" decade switches and the K2 panel switches to set the desired algorithm. They would then start the bedstead tape motor and lamp and, when the tape was up to speed, operate the master start switch. [61]

Howard Campaigne, a mathematician and cryptanalyst from the US Navy's OP-20-G, wrote the following in a foreword to Flowers' 1983 paper "The Design of Colossus".

My view of Colossus was that of cryptanalyst-programmer. I told the machine to make certain calculations and counts, and after studying the results, told it to do another job. It did not remember the previous result, nor could it have acted upon it if it did. Colossus and I alternated in an interaction that sometimes achieved an analysis of an unusual German cipher system, called "Geheimschreiber" by the Germans, and "Fish" by the cryptanalysts. [62]

Colossus was not a stored-program computer. The input data for the five parallel processors was read from the looped message paper tape and the electronic pattern generators for the chi, psi and motor wheels. [63] The programs for the processors were set and held on the switches and jack panel connections. Each processor could evaluate a Boolean function and count and display the number of times it yielded the specified value of "false" (0) or "true" (1) for each pass of the message tape.

Input to the processors came from two sources, the shift registers from tape reading and the thyratron rings that emulated the wheels of the Tunny machine. [64] The characters on the paper tape were called Z and the characters from the Tunny emulator were referred to by the Greek letters that Bill Tutte had given them when working out the logical structure of the machine. On the selection panel, switches specified either Z or ΔZ, either χ or Δ χ and either ψ or Δ ψ for the data to be passed to the jack field and 'K2 switch panel'. These signals from the wheel simulators could be specified as stepping on with each new pass of the message tape or not.

The K2 switch panel had a group of switches on the left-hand side to specify the algorithm. The switches on the right-hand side selected the counter to which the result was fed. The plugboard allowed less specialized conditions to be imposed. Overall the K2 switch panel switches and the plugboard allowed about five billion different combinations of the selected variables. [58]

As an example: a set of runs for a message tape might initially involve two chi wheels, as in Tutte's 1+2 algorithm. Such a two-wheel run was called a long run, taking on average eight minutes unless the parallelism was utilised to cut the time by a factor of five. The subsequent runs might only involve setting one chi wheel, giving a short run taking about two minutes. Initially, after the initial long run, the choice of next algorithm to be tried was specified by the cryptanalyst. Experience showed, however, that decision trees for this iterative process could be produced for use by the Wren operators in a proportion of cases. [65]

Although the Colossus was the first of the electronic digital machines with programmability, albeit limited by modern standards, [66] it was not a general-purpose machine, being designed for a range of cryptanalytic tasks, most involving counting the results of evaluating Boolean algorithms.

A Colossus computer was thus not a fully Turing complete machine. However, University of San Francisco professor Benjamin Wells has shown that if all ten Colossus machines made were rearranged in a specific cluster, then the entire set of computers could have simulated a universal Turing machine, and thus be Turing complete. [67] The notion of a computer as a general-purpose machine – that is, as more than a calculator devoted to solving difficult but specific problems – did not become prominent until after World War II. [ citation needed ]

Colossus and the reasons for its construction were highly secret and remained so for 30 years after the War. Consequently, it was not included in the history of computing hardware for many years, and Flowers and his associates were deprived of the recognition they were due. Colossi 1 to 10 were dismantled after the war and parts returned to the Post Office. Some parts, sanitised as to their original purpose, were taken to Max Newman's Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory at Manchester University. [68] Tommy Flowers was ordered to destroy all documentation and burnt them in a furnace at Dollis Hill. He later said of that order:

That was a terrible mistake. I was instructed to destroy all the records, which I did. I took all the drawings and the plans and all the information about Colossus on paper and put it in the boiler fire. And saw it burn. [69]

Colossi 11 and 12, along with two replica Tunny machines, were retained, being moved to GCHQ's new headquarters at Eastcote in April 1946, and again with GCHQ to Cheltenham between 1952 and 1954. [70] One of the Colossi, known as Colossus Blue, was dismantled in 1959 the other in 1960. [70] There had been attempts to adapt them to other purposes, with varying success in their later years they had been used for training. [71] Jack Good related how he was the first to use Colossus after the war, persuading the US National Security Agency that it could be used to perform a function for which they were planning to build a special-purpose machine. [70] Colossus was also used to perform character counts on one-time pad tape to test for non-randomness. [70]

A small number of people who were associated with Colossus—and knew that large-scale, reliable, high-speed electronic digital computing devices were feasible—played significant roles in early computer work in the UK and probably in the US. However, being so secret, it had little direct influence on the development of later computers it was EDVAC that was the seminal computer architecture of the time. [ citation needed ] In 1972, Herman Goldstine, who was unaware of Colossus and its legacy to the projects of people such as Alan Turing (ACE), Max Newman (Manchester computers) and Harry Huskey (Bendix G-15), wrote that,

Britain had such vitality that it could immediately after the war embark on so many well-conceived and well-executed projects in the computer field. [72]

Professor Brian Randell, who unearthed information about Colossus in the 1970s, commented on this, saying that:

It is my opinion that the COLOSSUS project was an important source of this vitality, one that has been largely unappreciated, as has the significance of its places in the chronology of the invention of the digital computer. [73]

Randell's efforts started to bear fruit in the mid-1970s, after the secrecy about Bletchley Park was broken when Group Captain Winterbotham published his book The Ultra Secret in 1974. [74] In October 2000, a 500-page technical report on the Tunny cipher and its cryptanalysis—entitled General Report on Tunny [75] —was released by GCHQ to the national Public Record Office, and it contains a fascinating paean to Colossus by the cryptographers who worked with it:

It is regretted that it is not possible to give an adequate idea of the fascination of a Colossus at work its sheer bulk and apparent complexity the fantastic speed of thin paper tape round the glittering pulleys the childish pleasure of not-not, span, print main header and other gadgets the wizardry of purely mechanical decoding letter by letter (one novice thought she was being hoaxed) the uncanny action of the typewriter in printing the correct scores without and beyond human aid the stepping of the display periods of eager expectation culminating in the sudden appearance of the longed-for score and the strange rhythms characterizing every type of run: the stately break-in, the erratic short run, the regularity of wheel-breaking, the stolid rectangle interrupted by the wild leaps of the carriage-return, the frantic chatter of a motor run, even the ludicrous frenzy of hosts of bogus scores. [76]

Construction of a fully functional rebuild [77] [78] of a Colossus Mark 2 was undertaken between 1993 and 2008 by a team led by Tony Sale. [11] [10] In spite of the blueprints and hardware being destroyed, a surprising amount of material survived, mainly in engineers' notebooks, but a considerable amount of it in the U.S. The optical tape reader might have posed the biggest problem, but Dr. Arnold Lynch, its original designer was able to redesign it to his own original specification. The reconstruction is on display, in the historically correct place for Colossus No. 9, at The National Museum of Computing, in H Block Bletchley Park in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire.

In November 2007, to celebrate the project completion and to mark the start of a fundraising initiative for The National Museum of Computing, a Cipher Challenge [79] pitted the rebuilt Colossus against radio amateurs worldwide in being first to receive and decode three messages enciphered using the Lorenz SZ42 and transmitted from radio station DL0HNF in the Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum computer museum. The challenge was easily won by radio amateur Joachim Schüth, who had carefully prepared [80] for the event and developed his own signal processing and code-breaking code using Ada. [81] The Colossus team were hampered by their wish to use World War II radio equipment, [82] delaying them by a day because of poor reception conditions. Nevertheless, the victor's 1.4 GHz laptop, running his own code, took less than a minute to find the settings for all 12 wheels. The German codebreaker said: "My laptop digested ciphertext at a speed of 1.2 million characters per second—240 times faster than Colossus. If you scale the CPU frequency by that factor, you get an equivalent clock of 5.8 MHz for Colossus. That is a remarkable speed for a computer built in 1944." [83]

The Cipher Challenge verified the successful completion of the rebuild project. "On the strength of today's performance Colossus is as good as it was six decades ago", commented Tony Sale. "We are delighted to have produced a fitting tribute to the people who worked at Bletchley Park and whose brainpower devised these fantastic machines which broke these ciphers and shortened the war by many months." [84]

There was a fictional computer named Colossus in the 1970 film Colossus: The Forbin Project which was based on the 1966 novel Colossus by D. F. Jones. This was a coincidence as it pre-dates the public release of information about Colossus, or even its name.

Neal Stephenson's novel Cryptonomicon (1999) also contains a fictional treatment of the historical role played by Turing and Bletchley Park.


Paul Auster wrote that "Bartholdi's gigantic effigy was originally intended as a monument to the principles of international republicanism, but 'The New Colossus' reinvented the statue's purpose, turning Liberty into a welcoming mother, a symbol of hope to the outcasts and downtrodden of the world." [8]

John T. Cunningham wrote that "The Statue of Liberty was not conceived and sculpted as a symbol of immigration, but it quickly became so as immigrant ships passed under the torch and the shining face, heading toward Ellis Island. However, it was [Lazarus's poem] that permanently stamped on Miss Liberty the role of unofficial greeter of incoming immigrants." [9]

The poem has entered the political realm. It was quoted in John F. Kennedy's book A Nation of Immigrants (1958) [10] as well as a 2010 political speech by President Obama advocating immigration policy reform. [11]

Classical composer David Ludwig has set the poem to music, which was performed at the worship service of President Obama's 2013 inauguration ceremony. [12]

Parts of the poem also appear in popular culture. The Broadway musical Miss Liberty, with music and lyrics by Irving Berlin, an immigrant himself, used the final stanza beginning "Give me your tired, your poor" as the basis for a song. [13] [10] It was also read in the 1941 film Hold Back the Dawn as well as being recited by the heroine in Alfred Hitchcock's wartime film Saboteur. [10] Harpist and singer Joanna Newsom indirectly references the poem in her 2015 song "Sapokanikan," in contrast to the forbidding colossus of Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Ozymandias." [14]

Ancient Greek art

Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation. The rate of stylistic development between about 750 and 300 BC was remarkable by ancient standards, and in surviving works is best seen in sculpture. There were important innovations in painting, which have to be essentially reconstructed due to the lack of original survivals of quality, other than the distinct field of painted pottery.

Greek architecture, technically very simple, established a harmonious style with numerous detailed conventions that were largely adopted by Roman architecture and are still followed in some modern buildings. It used a vocabulary of ornament that was shared with pottery, metalwork and other media, and had an enormous influence on Eurasian art, especially after Buddhism carried it beyond the expanded Greek world created by Alexander the Great. The social context of Greek art included radical political developments and a great increase in prosperity the equally impressive Greek achievements in philosophy, literature and other fields are well known.

The earliest art by Greeks is generally excluded from "ancient Greek art", and instead known as Greek Neolithic art followed by Aegean art the latter includes Cycladic art and the art of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures from the Greek Bronze Age. [1] The art of ancient Greece is usually divided stylistically into four periods: the Geometric, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. The Geometric age is usually dated from about 1000 BC, although in reality little is known about art in Greece during the preceding 200 years, traditionally known as the Greek Dark Ages. The 7th century BC witnessed the slow development of the Archaic style as exemplified by the black-figure style of vase painting. Around 500 BC, shortly before the onset of the Persian Wars (480 BC to 448 BC), is usually taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, and the reign of Alexander the Great (336 BC to 323 BC) is taken as separating the Classical from the Hellenistic periods. From some point in the 1st century BC onwards "Greco-Roman" is used, or more local terms for the Eastern Greek world. [2]

In reality, there was no sharp transition from one period to another. Forms of art developed at different speeds in different parts of the Greek world, and as in any age some artists worked in more innovative styles than others. Strong local traditions, and the requirements of local cults, enable historians to locate the origins even of works of art found far from their place of origin. Greek art of various kinds was widely exported. The whole period saw a generally steady increase in prosperity and trading links within the Greek world and with neighbouring cultures.

The survival rate of Greek art differs starkly between media. We have huge quantities of pottery and coins, much stone sculpture, though even more Roman copies, and a few large bronze sculptures. Almost entirely missing are painting, fine metal vessels, and anything in perishable materials including wood. The stone shell of a number of temples and theatres has survived, but little of their extensive decoration. [3]


By convention, finely painted vessels of all shapes are called "vases", and there are over 100,000 significantly complete surviving pieces, [6] giving (with the inscriptions that many carry) unparalleled insights into many aspects of Greek life. Sculptural or architectural pottery, also very often painted, are referred to as terracottas, and also survive in large quantities. In much of the literature, "pottery" means only painted vessels, or "vases". Pottery was the main form of grave goods deposited in tombs, often as "funerary urns" containing the cremated ashes, and was widely exported.

The famous and distinctive style of Greek vase-painting with figures depicted with strong outlines, with thin lines within the outlines, reached its peak from about 600 to 350 BC, and divides into the two main styles, almost reversals of each other, of black-figure and red-figure painting, the other colour forming the background in each case. Other colours were very limited, normally to small areas of white and larger ones of a different purplish-red. Within the restrictions of these techniques and other strong conventions, vase-painters achieved remarkable results, combining refinement and powerful expression. White ground technique allowed more freedom in depiction, but did not wear well and was mostly made for burial. [7]

Conventionally, the ancient Greeks are said to have made most pottery vessels for everyday use, not for display. Exceptions are the large Archaic monumental vases made as grave-markers, trophies won at games, such as the Panathenaic Amphorae filled with olive oil, and pieces made specifically to be left in graves some perfume bottles have a money-saving bottom just below the mouth, so a small quantity makes them appear full. [8] In recent decades many scholars have questioned this, seeing much more production than was formerly thought as made to be placed in graves, as a cheaper substitute for metalware in both Greece and Etruria. [9]

Most surviving pottery consists of vessels for storing, serving or drinking liquids such as amphorae, kraters (bowls for mixing wine and water), hydria (water jars), libation bowls, oil and perfume bottles for the toilet, jugs and cups. Painted vessels for serving and eating food are much less common. Painted pottery was affordable even by ordinary people, and a piece "decently decorated with about five or six figures cost about two or three days' wages". [10] Miniatures were also produced in large numbers, mainly for use as offerings at temples. [11] In the Hellenistic period a wider range of pottery was produced, but most of it is of little artistic importance.

In earlier periods even quite small Greek cities produced pottery for their own locale. These varied widely in style and standards. Distinctive pottery that ranks as art was produced on some of the Aegean islands, in Crete, and in the wealthy Greek colonies of southern Italy and Sicily. [12] By the later Archaic and early Classical period, however, the two great commercial powers, Corinth and Athens, came to dominate. Their pottery was exported all over the Greek world, driving out the local varieties. Pots from Corinth and Athens are found as far afield as Spain and Ukraine, and are so common in Italy that they were first collected in the 18th century as "Etruscan vases". [13] Many of these pots are mass-produced products of low quality. In fact, by the 5th century BC, pottery had become an industry and pottery painting ceased to be an important art form.

The range of colours which could be used on pots was restricted by the technology of firing: black, white, red, and yellow were the most common. In the three earlier periods, the pots were left their natural light colour, and were decorated with slip that turned black in the kiln. [7]

Greek pottery is frequently signed, sometimes by the potter or the master of the pottery, but only occasionally by the painter. Hundreds of painters are, however, identifiable by their artistic personalities: where their signatures have not survived they are named for their subject choices, as "the Achilles Painter", by the potter they worked for, such as the Late Archaic "Kleophrades Painter", or even by their modern locations, such as the Late Archaic "Berlin Painter". [14]


The history of ancient Greek pottery is divided stylistically into five periods:

  • the Protogeometric from about 1050 BC
  • the Geometric from about 900 BC
  • the Late Geometric or Archaic from about 750 BC
  • the Black Figure from the early 7th century BC
  • and the Red Figure from about 530 BC

During the Protogeometric and Geometric periods, Greek pottery was decorated with abstract designs, in the former usually elegant and large, with plenty of unpainted space, but in the Geometric often densely covering most of the surface, as in the large pots by the Dipylon Master, who worked around 750. He and other potters around his time began to introduce very stylised silhouette figures of humans and animals, especially horses. These often represent funeral processions, or battles, presumably representing those fought by the deceased. [15]

The Geometric phase was followed by an Orientalizing period in the late 8th century, when a few animals, many either mythical or not native to Greece (like the sphinx and lion respectively) were adapted from the Near East, accompanied by decorative motifs, such as the lotus and palmette. These were shown much larger than the previous figures. The Wild Goat Style is a regional variant, very often showing goats. Human figures were not so influenced from the East, but also became larger and more detailed. [16]

The fully mature black-figure technique, with added red and white details and incising for outlines and details, originated in Corinth during the early 7th century BC and was introduced into Attica about a generation later it flourished until the end of the 6th century BC. [17] The red-figure technique, invented in about 530 BC, reversed this tradition, with the pots being painted black and the figures painted in red. Red-figure vases slowly replaced the black-figure style. Sometimes larger vessels were engraved as well as painted. Erotic themes, both heterosexual and male homosexual, became common. [18]

By about 320 BC fine figurative vase-painting had ceased in Athens and other Greek centres, with the polychromatic Kerch style a final flourish it was probably replaced by metalwork for most of its functions. West Slope Ware, with decorative motifs on a black glazed body, continued for over a century after. [19] Italian red-figure painting ended by about 300, and in the next century the relatively primitive Hadra vases, probably from Crete, Centuripe ware from Sicily, and Panathenaic amphorae, now a frozen tradition, were the only large painted vases still made. [20]


Fine metalwork was an important art in ancient Greece, but later production is very poorly represented by survivals, most of which come from the edges of the Greek world or beyond, from as far as France or Russia. Vessels and jewellery were produced to high standards, and exported far afield. Objects in silver, at the time worth more relative to gold than it is in modern times, were often inscribed by the maker with their weight, as they were treated largely as stores of value, and likely to be sold or re-melted before very long. [22]

During the Geometric and Archaic phases, the production of large metal vessels was an important expression of Greek creativity, and an important stage in the development of bronzeworking techniques, such as casting and repousse hammering. Early sanctuaries, especially Olympia, yielded many hundreds of tripod-bowl or sacrificial tripod vessels, mostly in bronze, deposited as votives. These had a shallow bowl with two handles raised high on three legs in later versions the stand and bowl were different pieces. During the Orientalising period, such tripods were frequently decorated with figural protomes, in the shape of griffins, sphinxes and other fantastic creatures. [23]

Swords, the Greek helmet and often body armour such as the muscle cuirass were made of bronze, sometimes decorated in precious metal, as in the 3rd-century Ksour Essef cuirass. [24] Armour and "shield-bands" are two of the contexts for strips of Archaic low relief scenes, which were also attached to various objects in wood the band on the Vix Krater is a large example. [25] Polished bronze mirrors, initially with decorated backs and kore handles, were another common item the later "folding mirror" type had hinged cover pieces, often decorated with a relief scene, typically erotic. [26] Coins are described below.

From the late Archaic the best metalworking kept pace with stylistic developments in sculpture and the other arts, and Phidias is among the sculptors known to have practiced it. [27] Hellenistic taste encouraged highly intricate displays of technical virtuousity, tending to "cleverness, whimsy, or excessive elegance". [28] Many or most Greek pottery shapes were taken from shapes first used in metal, and in recent decades there has been an increasing view that much of the finest vase-painting reused designs by silversmiths for vessels with engraving and sections plated in a different metal, working from drawn designs. [29]

Exceptional survivals of what may have been a relatively common class of large bronze vessels are two volute kraters, for mixing wine and water. [30] These are the Vix Krater, c. 530 BC, 1.63m (5'4") high and over 200 kg (450 lbs) in weight, holding some 1,100 litres, and found in the burial of a Celtic woman in modern France, [31] and the 4th-century Derveni Krater, 90.5 cm (35 in.) high. [32] The elites of other neighbours of the Greeks, such as the Thracians and Scythians, were keen consumers of Greek metalwork, and probably served by Greek goldsmiths settled in their territories, who adapted their products to suit local taste and functions. Such hybrid pieces form a large part of survivals, including the Panagyurishte Treasure, Borovo Treasure, and other Thracian treasures, and several Scythian burials, which probably contained work by Greek artists based in the Greek settlements on the Black Sea. [33] As with other luxury arts, the Macedonian royal cemetery at Vergina has produced objects of top quality from the cusp of the Classical and Hellenistic periods. [34]

Jewellery for the Greek market is often of superb quality, [35] with one unusual form being intricate and very delicate gold wreaths imitating plant-forms, worn on the head. These were probably rarely, if ever, worn in life, but were given as votives and worn in death. [36] Many of the Fayum mummy portraits wear them. Some pieces, especially in the Hellenistic period, are large enough to offer scope for figures, as did the Scythian taste for relatively substantial pieces in gold. [37]

Monumental sculpture

The Greeks decided very early on that the human form was the most important subject for artistic endeavour. [39] Seeing their gods as having human form, there was little distinction between the sacred and the secular in art—the human body was both secular and sacred. A male nude of Apollo or Heracles had only slight differences in treatment to one of that year's Olympic boxing champion. In the Archaic Period the most important sculptural form was the kouros (plural kouroi), the standing male nude (See for example Biton and Kleobis). The kore (plural korai), or standing clothed female figure, was also common, but since Greek society did not permit the public display of female nudity until the 4th century BC, the kore is considered to be of less importance in the development of sculpture. [40] By the end of the period architectural sculpture on temples was becoming important.

As with pottery, the Greeks did not produce sculpture merely for artistic display. Statues were commissioned either by aristocratic individuals or by the state, and used for public memorials, as offerings to temples, oracles and sanctuaries (as is frequently shown by inscriptions on the statues), or as markers for graves. Statues in the Archaic period were not all intended to represent specific individuals. They were depictions of an ideal—beauty, piety, honor or sacrifice. These were always depictions of young men, ranging in age from adolescence to early maturity, even when placed on the graves of (presumably) elderly citizens. Kouroi were all stylistically similar. Graduations in the social stature of the person commissioning the statue were indicated by size rather than artistic innovations. [41]

Unlike authors, those who practiced the visual arts, including sculpture, initially had a low social status in ancient Greece, though increasingly leading sculptors might become famous and rather wealthy, and often signed their work (unfortunately, often on the plinth, which typically became separated from the statue itself). [42] Plutarch (Life of Pericles, II) said "we admire the work of art but despise the maker of it" this was a common view in the ancient world. Ancient Greek sculpture is categorised by the usual stylistic periods of "Archaic", "Classical" and "Hellenistic", augmented with some extra ones mainly applying to sculpture, such as the Orientalizing Daedalic style and the Severe style of early Classical sculpture. [43]

Materials, forms

Surviving ancient Greek sculptures were mostly made of two types of material. Stone, especially marble or other high-quality limestones was used most frequently and carved by hand with metal tools. Stone sculptures could be free-standing fully carved in the round (statues), or only partially carved reliefs still attached to a background plaque, for example in architectural friezes or grave stelai. [44]

Bronze statues were of higher status, but have survived in far smaller numbers, due to the reusability of metals. They were usually made in the lost wax technique. Chryselephantine, or gold-and-ivory, statues were the cult-images in temples and were regarded as the highest form of sculpture, but only some fragmentary pieces have survived. They were normally over-lifesize, built around a wooden frame, with thin carved slabs of ivory representing the flesh, and sheets of gold leaf, probably over wood, representing the garments, armour, hair, and other details. [45]

In some cases, glass paste, glass, and precious and semi-precious stones were used for detail such as eyes, jewellery, and weaponry. Other large acrolithic statues used stone for the flesh parts, and wood for the rest, and marble statues sometimes had stucco hairstyles. Most sculpture was painted (see below), and much wore real jewellery and had inlaid eyes and other elements in different materials. [46]

Terracotta was occasionally employed, for large statuary. Few examples of this survived, at least partially due to the fragility of such statues. The best known exception to this is a statue of Zeus carrying Ganymede found at Olympia, executed around 470 BC. In this case, the terracotta is painted. There were undoubtedly sculptures purely in wood, which may have been very important in early periods, but effectively none have survived. [47]


Bronze Age Cycladic art, to about 1100 BC, had already shown an unusual focus on the human figure, usually shown in a straightforward frontal standing position with arms folded across the stomach. Among the smaller features only noses, sometimes eyes, and female breasts were carved, though the figures were apparently usually painted and may have originally looked very different.

Inspired by the monumental stone sculpture of Egypt and Mesopotamia, during the Archaic period the Greeks began again to carve in stone. Free-standing figures share the solidity and frontal stance characteristic of Eastern models, but their forms are more dynamic than those of Egyptian sculpture, as for example the Lady of Auxerre and Torso of Hera (Early Archaic period, c. 660–580 BC, both in the Louvre, Paris). After about 575 BC, figures, such as these, both male and female, wore the so-called archaic smile. This expression, which has no specific appropriateness to the person or situation depicted, may have been a device to give the figures a distinctive human characteristic. [48]

Three types of figures prevailed—the standing nude youth (kouros), the standing draped girl (kore) and, less frequently, the seated woman. [49] All emphasize and generalize the essential features of the human figure and show an increasingly accurate comprehension of human anatomy. The youths were either sepulchral or votive statues. Examples are Apollo (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), an early work the Strangford Apollo from Anafi (British Museum, London), a much later work and the Anavyssos Kouros (National Archaeological Museum of Athens). More of the musculature and skeletal structure is visible in this statue than in earlier works. The standing, draped girls have a wide range of expression, as in the sculptures in the Acropolis Museum of Athens. Their drapery is carved and painted with the delicacy and meticulousness common in the details of sculpture of this period. [50]

Archaic reliefs have survived from many tombs, and from larger buildings at Foce del Sele (now in the museum at Paestum) in Italy, with two groups of metope panels, from about 550 and 510, and the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi, with friezes and a small pediment. Parts, all now in local museums, survive of the large triangular pediment groups from the Temple of Artemis, Corfu (c. 580), dominated by a huge Gorgon, and the Old Temple of Athena in Athens (c. 530-500). [51]


In the Classical period there was a revolution in Greek statuary, usually associated with the introduction of democracy and the end of the aristocratic culture associated with the kouroi. The Classical period saw changes in the style and function of sculpture. Poses became more naturalistic (see the Charioteer of Delphi for an example of the transition to more naturalistic sculpture), and the technical skill of Greek sculptors in depicting the human form in a variety of poses greatly increased. From about 500 BC statues began to depict real people. The statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton set up in Athens to mark the overthrow of the tyranny were said to be the first public monuments to actual people. [52]

At the same time sculpture and statues were put to wider uses. The great temples of the Classical era such as the Parthenon in Athens, and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, required relief sculpture for decorative friezes, and sculpture in the round to fill the triangular fields of the pediments. The difficult aesthetic and technical challenge stimulated much in the way of sculptural innovation. Unfortunately these works survive only in fragments, the most famous of which are the Parthenon Marbles, half of which are in the British Museum. [55]

Funeral statuary evolved during this period from the rigid and impersonal kouros of the Archaic period to the highly personal family groups of the Classical period. These monuments are commonly found in the suburbs of Athens, which in ancient times were cemeteries on the outskirts of the city. Although some of them depict "ideal" types—the mourning mother, the dutiful son—they increasingly depicted real people, typically showing the departed taking his dignified leave from his family. They are among the most intimate and affecting remains of the ancient Greeks. [56]

In the Classical period for the first time we know the names of individual sculptors. Phidias oversaw the design and building of the Parthenon. Praxiteles made the female nude respectable for the first time in the Late Classical period (mid-4th century): his Aphrodite of Knidos, which survives in copies, was said by Pliny to be the greatest statue in the world. [57]

The most famous works of the Classical period for contemporaries were the colossal Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Statue of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon. Both were chryselephantine and executed by Phidias or under his direction, and are now lost, although smaller copies (in other materials) and good descriptions of both still exist. Their size and magnificence prompted emperors to seize them in the Byzantine period, and both were removed to Constantinople, where they were later destroyed in fires. [58]


The transition from the Classical to the Hellenistic period occurred during the 4th century BC. Following the conquests of Alexander the Great (336 BC to 323 BC), Greek culture spread as far as India, as revealed by the excavations of Ai-Khanoum in eastern Afghanistan, and the civilization of the Greco-Bactrians and the Indo-Greeks. Greco-Buddhist art represented a syncretism between Greek art and the visual expression of Buddhism. Thus Greek art became more diverse and more influenced by the cultures of the peoples drawn into the Greek orbit. [59]

In the view of some art historians, it also declined in quality and originality. This, however, is a judgement which artists and art-lovers of the time would not have shared. Indeed, many sculptures previously considered as classical masterpieces are now recognised as being Hellenistic. The technical ability of Hellenistic sculptors is clearly in evidence in such major works as the Winged Victory of Samothrace, and the Pergamon Altar. New centres of Greek culture, particularly in sculpture, developed in Alexandria, Antioch, Pergamum, and other cities, where the new monarchies were lavish patrons. [60] By the 2nd century the rising power of Rome had also absorbed much of the Greek tradition—and an increasing proportion of its products as well. [61]

During this period sculpture became more naturalistic, and also expressive the interest in depicting extremes of emotion being sometimes pushed to extremes. Genre subjects of common people, women, children, animals and domestic scenes became acceptable subjects for sculpture, which was commissioned by wealthy families for the adornment of their homes and gardens the Boy with Thorn is an example. Realistic portraits of men and women of all ages were produced, and sculptors no longer felt obliged to depict people as ideals of beauty or physical perfection. [62]

The world of Dionysus, a pastoral idyll populated by satyrs, maenads, nymphs and sileni, had been often depicted in earlier vase painting and figurines, but rarely in full-size sculpture. Now such works were made, surviving in copies including the Barberini Faun, the Belvedere Torso, and the Resting Satyr the Furietti Centaurs and Sleeping Hermaphroditus reflect related themes. [63] At the same time, the new Hellenistic cities springing up all over Egypt, Syria, and Anatolia required statues depicting the gods and heroes of Greece for their temples and public places. This made sculpture, like pottery, an industry, with the consequent standardisation and some lowering of quality. For these reasons many more Hellenistic statues have survived than is the case with the Classical period.

Some of the best known Hellenistic sculptures are the Winged Victory of Samothrace (2nd or 1st century BC), [64] the statue of Aphrodite from the island of Melos known as the Venus de Milo (mid-2nd century BC), the Dying Gaul (about 230 BC), and the monumental group Laocoön and His Sons (late 1st century BC). All these statues depict Classical themes, but their treatment is far more sensuous and emotional than the austere taste of the Classical period would have allowed or its technical skills permitted.

The multi-figure group of statues was a Hellenistic innovation, probably of the 3rd century, taking the epic battles of earlier temple pediment reliefs off their walls, and placing them as life-size groups of statues. Their style is often called "baroque", with extravagantly contorted body poses, and intense expressions in the faces. The reliefs on the Pergamon Altar are the nearest original survivals, but several well known works are believed to be Roman copies of Hellenistic originals. These include the Dying Gaul and Ludovisi Gaul, as well as a less well known Kneeling Gaul and others, all believed to copy Pergamene commissions by Attalus I to commemorate his victory around 241 over the Gauls of Galatia, probably comprising two groups. [65]

The Laocoön Group, the Farnese Bull, Menelaus supporting the body of Patroclus ("Pasquino group"), Arrotino, and the Sperlonga sculptures, are other examples. [66] From the 2nd century the Neo-Attic or Neo-Classical style is seen by different scholars as either a reaction to baroque excesses, returning to a version of Classical style, or as a continuation of the traditional style for cult statues. [67] Workshops in the style became mainly producers of copies for the Roman market, which preferred copies of Classical rather than Hellenistic pieces. [68]

Discoveries made since the end of the 19th century surrounding the (now submerged) ancient Egyptian city of Heracleum include a 4th-century BC, unusually sensual, detailed and feministic (as opposed to deified) depiction of Isis, marking a combination of Egyptian and Hellenistic forms beginning around the time of Egypt's conquest by Alexander the Great. However this was untypical of Ptolemaic court sculpture, which generally avoided mixing Egyptian styles with its fairly conventional Hellenistic style, [69] while temples in the rest of the country continued using late versions of traditional Egyptian formulae. [70] Scholars have proposed an "Alexandrian style" in Hellenistic sculpture, but there is in fact little to connect it with Alexandria. [71]

Hellenistic sculpture was also marked by an increase in scale, which culminated in the Colossus of Rhodes (late 3rd century), which was the same size as the Statue of Liberty. The combined effect of earthquakes and looting have destroyed this as well as other very large works of this period.


Terracotta figurines

Clay is a material frequently used for the making of votive statuettes or idols, even before the Minoan civilization and continuing until the Roman period. During the 8th century BC tombs in Boeotia often contain "bell idols", female statuettes with mobile legs: the head, small compared to the remainder of the body, is perched at the end of a long neck, while the body is very full, in the shape of a bell. [72] Archaic heroon tombs, for local heroes, might receive large numbers of crudely-shaped figurines, with rudimentary figuration, generally representing characters with raised arms.

By the Hellenistic period most terracotta figurines have lost their religious nature, and represent characters from everyday life. Tanagra figurines, from one of several centres of production, are mass-manufactured using moulds, and then painted after firing. Dolls, figures of fashionably-dressed ladies and of actors, some of these probably portraits, were among the new subjects, depicted with a refined style. These were cheap, and initially displayed in the home much like modern ornamental figurines, but were quite often buried with their owners. At the same time, cities like Alexandria, Smyrna or Tarsus produced an abundance of grotesque figurines, representing individuals with deformed members, eyes bulging and contorting themselves. Such figurines were also made from bronze. [73]

For painted architectural terracottas, see Architecture below.

Metal figurines

Figurines made of metal, primarily bronze, are an extremely common find at early Greek sanctuaries like Olympia, where thousands of such objects, mostly depicting animals, have been found. They are usually produced in the lost wax technique and can be considered the initial stage in the development of Greek bronze sculpture. The most common motifs during the Geometric period were horses and deer, but dogs, cattle and other animals are also depicted. Human figures occur occasionally. The production of small metal votives continued throughout Greek antiquity. In the Classical and Hellenistic periods, more elaborate bronze statuettes, closely connected with monumental sculpture, also became common. High quality examples were keenly collected by wealthy Greeks, and later Romans, but relatively few have survived. [74]


Architecture (meaning buildings executed to an aesthetically considered design) ceased in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) until the 7th century, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. Since most Greek buildings in the Archaic and Early Classical periods were made of wood or mud-brick, nothing remains of them except a few ground-plans, and there are almost no written sources on early architecture or descriptions of buildings. Most of our knowledge of Greek architecture comes from the surviving buildings of the Late Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods (since ancient Roman architecture heavily used Greek styles), and from late written sources such as Vitruvius (1st century BC). This means that there is a strong bias towards temples, the most common major buildings to survive. Here the squared blocks of stone used for walls were useful for later buildings, and so often all that survives are parts of columns and metopes that were harder to recycle. [75]

For most of the period a strict stone post and lintel system of construction was used, held in place only by gravity. Corbelling was known in Mycenean Greece, and the arch was known from the 5th century at the latest, but hardly any use was made of these techniques until the Roman period. [76] Wood was only used for ceilings and roof timbers in prestigious stone buildings. The use of large terracotta roof tiles, only held in place by grooving, meant that roofs needed to have a low pitch. [77]

Until Hellenistic times only public buildings were built using the formal stone style these included above all temples, and the smaller treasury buildings which often accompanied them, and were built at Delphi by many cities. Other building types, often not roofed, were the central agora, often with one or more colonnaded stoa around it, theatres, the gymnasium and palaestra or wrestling-school, the ekklesiasterion or bouleuterion for assemblies, and the propylaea or monumental gateways. [78] Round buildings for various functions were called a tholos, [79] and the largest stone structures were often defensive city walls.

Tombs were for most of the period only made as elaborate mausolea around the edges of the Greek world, especially in Anatolia. [80] Private houses were built around a courtyard where funds allowed, and showed blank walls to the street. They sometimes had a second story, but very rarely basements. They were usually built of rubble at best, and relatively little is known about them at least for males, much of life was spent outside them. [81] A few palaces from the Hellenistic period have been excavated. [82]

Temples and some other buildings such as the treasuries at Delphi were planned as either a cube or, more often, a rectangle made from limestone, of which Greece has an abundance, and which was cut into large blocks and dressed. This was supplemented by columns, at least on the entrance front, and often on all sides. [83] Other buildings were more flexible in plan, and even the wealthiest houses seem to have lacked much external ornament. Marble was an expensive building material in Greece: high quality marble came only from Mt Pentelus in Attica and from a few islands such as Paros, and its transportation in large blocks was difficult. It was used mainly for sculptural decoration, not structurally, except in the very grandest buildings of the Classical period such as the Parthenon in Athens. [84]

There were two main classical orders of Greek architecture, the Doric and the Ionic, with the Corinthian order only appearing in the Classical period, and not becoming dominant until the Roman period. The most obvious features of the three orders are the capitals of the columns, but there are significant differences in other points of design and decoration between the orders. [85] These names were used by the Greeks themselves, and reflected their belief that the styles descended from the Dorian and Ionian Greeks of the Dark Ages, but this is unlikely to be true. The Doric was the earliest, probably first appearing in stone in the earlier 7th century, having developed (though perhaps not very directly) from predecessors in wood. [86] It was used in mainland Greece and the Greek colonies in Italy. The Ionic style was first used in the cities of Ionia (now the west coast of Turkey) and some of the Aegean islands, probably beginning in the 6th century. [87] The Doric style was more formal and austere, the Ionic more relaxed and decorative. The more ornate Corinthian order was a later development of the Ionic, initially apparently only used inside buildings, and using Ionic forms for everything except the capitals. The famous and well-preserved Choragic Monument of Lysicrates near the Athens Acropolis (335/334) is the first known use of the Corinthian order on the exterior of a building. [88]

Most of the best known surviving Greek buildings, such as the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, are Doric. The Erechtheum, next to the Parthenon, however, is Ionic. The Ionic order became dominant in the Hellenistic period, since its more decorative style suited the aesthetic of the period better than the more restrained Doric. Some of the best surviving Hellenistic buildings, such as the Library of Celsus, can be seen in Turkey, at cities such as Ephesus and Pergamum. [89] But in the greatest of Hellenistic cities, Alexandria in Egypt, almost nothing survives.

Best Greek Mythology Books for Kids

D’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths

Author Ingri and Edgar D’Aulaires

D’Aulaires’ book of Greek Myths is a classic in print since 1967. When we were growing up, my youngest brother was obsessed with Greek mythology. He spent hours reading in his room. This was his favorite book, a copy of which he still keeps. I have to admit that the drawings are works of art. Obviously, it includes the major Greek myths, but minor ones too. My brother is reading it again with his daughter and, according to him, re-living all the fun. Yes, my brother is a nerd. The latest edition includes new pictures and photos of the authors.

Athena the Brain (Goddess Girls Books 1-4)

Author Joan Holub and Suzanne Williams

A friend of mine’s daughter recommended Athena the Brain. Her favorite Greek god is actually a goddess: Athena. According to her, the stories resemble her group of friends and their perils at school. She could tell me which of her friends was exactly like Artemis, Poseidon, Aphrodite, Persephone, Pandora, and Medusa! Though the book is one of the best contemporary Greek mythology books for kids, it does tell the original stories. The pictures and drawings are pretty cool too. The one thing I disagree with my niece is that it’s not a book for girls. Boys will enjoy it for sure!

Nomad's blog

I have completely reworked this post and deleted most of the old information that was contained here as my initial measurements of the colossi were wrong. I have since measured each colossus in real time (in game) using my memory editor and a few tricks to make the task easier, such as freezing the colossi so they don't move around.

Back in 2009 I published my measurements of the colossi on the Playstation 2 forums, but these values were based on Wander, and for that I just made a guess as to his height, which I speculated was 5 feet 7 inches (or 170cm). at the time I wasn't that clued into how the memory editor worked with the game, so this initial value was used to estimate the height of all the colossi, and as such the error was compounded. Note: The Team Ico wiki's measurements are also based on these erroneous measurements, but I've been in contact with one of the admins and he has agreed to update the measurements to the following correct values.

So now I can confidently provide their exact sizes which match up with the image found in the official art book (see below).

The story behind 'The New Colossus' poem on the Statue of Liberty and how it became a symbol of immigration

The poem has again been catapulted into a heated debate on immigration.

The Statue of Liberty and her sonnet

"Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free."

These iconic words from "The New Colossus," the 1883 poem written by American Emma Lazarus etched in bronze and mounted on the Statue of Liberty's pedestal, have again been catapulted into a heated political debate on immigration.

The Trump administration announced a "public charge" rule on Monday that could drastically limit legal immigration by denying green cards for those who qualify for food stamps, Medicaid, housing vouchers and various forms of public assistance.

Some reporters invoked "The New Colossus" when asking acting Director of the Citizenship and Immigration Services office Ken Cuccinelli about the new rule.

In defending the policy, Cuccinelli suggested to NPR on Tuesday that those lines should be rewritten to say "give me your tired and your poor who can stand on their own two feet and who will not become a public charge."

According to Alan Kraut, a professor of history at American University, language restricting immigration for those likely to become a public charge appeared in U.S. legislation as early as 1891, and throughout its history, the United States has courted immigrants but simultaneously "repelled them and was very not welcoming to [them] when they arrived."

Since then, the Statue of Liberty has evoked passionate feelings as a symbol of freedom and immigration -- and America's push and pull with it.

Early symbolism

The Statue of Liberty was the idea of Edouard Laboulaye, a French abolitionist and jurist, who wanted to gift the United States something to symbolize freedom after the Civil War to also serve as a reminder of France and America's friendship, according to the National Parks Service.

"When Edouard Laboulaye, the French abolitionist, came up with the idea of the Statue as a gift from the French people to Americans, his intent was to celebrate the end of slavery in the United States," Maria Cristina Garcia, a professor of American studies and history at Cornell University, told ABC News via email. "One early draft of the statue had Lady Liberty holding broken shackles in her hand. The shackles are now located at her feet, and are barely visible unless you are very high up (by helicopter, for example), which is one reason why Americans have forgotten this history."

The statue was designed by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who, according to Kraut, was inspired by ancient symbols, including Libertas, the Roman goddess of liberty.

"Initially, immigration was not one of the things that inspired the Statue of Liberty for Laboulaye or Bartholdi but there was a transformation and Lazarus's poem is part of that transformation," Kraut, who chairs the History Advisory Committee of the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island, said in a phone call with ABC News.

Emma Lazarus and The New Colossus

Lazarus was a young poet and social activist living in New York City of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish descent who could trace her roots back to the first Jews who came to North America, according to the National Park Service.

Three years before the Statue of Liberty was dedicated in Bedloe's Island in the New York harbor, Lazarus was asked to write a poem as part of an arts festival to help raise money for the statue's pedestal.

The poem's title, "The New Colossus," was inspired by "The Colossus of Rhodes" -- the ancient statue of the Greek sun-god Helios on the island of Rhodes.

At the time, Lazarus was involved in charitable work for refugees and was active in aiding Russian Jews who were trying to escape to the United States. According to Kraut, "Immigration and freedom of the oppressed was very much on her mind when writing this poem."

Lazarus died of illness in 1887 -- one year after the Statue of Liberty was dedicated by President Grover Cleveland in October 1886.

It was not until 1903 -- nearly 20 years after Lazarus' death -- that the bronze plaque bearing the iconic sonnet would be added to the statue's pedestal, after her friend Georgina Schuyler found a book in 1901 containing "The New Colossus" and launched an effort to commemorate Lazarus' work.

"The poem, like the shackles, is not immediately visible," Garcia, who is also a member of the History Advisory Committee of the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island, said. "The fact that we are conscious of these powerful and deeply moving words today is because of the generations of artists, editorialists, and politicians, who have continually reminded us of their power."

Lady Liberty and the New York Harbor

The location of the Statue of Liberty in the New York harbor -- a major receiving port for immigrants in the 19th century -- was a defining factor in the statue's symbolic "transformation," Kraut said.

During the 1880s through the early 1920s, there was "a peak period of immigration to the United States," according to Kraut, where 23.5 million immigrants seeking religious and political liberty and economic opportunity traveled to the United States.

Seven Wonders of the World

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Seven Wonders of the World, preeminent architectural and sculptural achievements of the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East, as listed by various observers. The best known are those of the 2nd-century- bce writer Antipater of Sidon and of a later but unknown observer of the 2nd century bce who claimed to be the mathematician Philon of Byzantium. Included on the list in its eventual form were the following:

Pyramids of Giza, the oldest of the wonders and the only one of the seven substantially in existence today.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon, thought to be a series of landscaped terraces, exact location unknown, generally ascribed to Queen Sammu-ramat, King Nebuchadrezzar II, or the Assyrian king Sennacherib.

Statue of Zeus at Olympia, a large ornate figure of the god on his throne, made about 430 bce by Phidias of Athens.

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, a structure famous for its imposing size and for the works of art that adorned it.

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, monumental tomb of the Anatolian king Mausolus built by his widow Artemisia.

Colossus of Rhodes, a huge bronze statue built at the harbour of Rhodes in commemoration of the raising of the siege of Rhodes (305–304 bce ).

Pharos of Alexandria, the most famous lighthouse of the ancient world, built for Ptolemy II of Egypt about 280 bce on the island of Pharos off Alexandria.

Some early lists included the Walls of Babylon or the Palace of King Cyrus of Persia in place of one of the sites noted above.

The seven wonders of Greco-Roman antiquity inspired the compilation of many other lists of attractions, both natural and human-made, by successive generations. Among such lists, all of which are limited to seven “wonders,” are the (architectural) wonders of the Middle Ages, the natural wonders of the world, the natural wonders of the United States, the (architectural) wonders of the modern world, and the wonders of American engineering.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

Death of General Wolfe (1770)

This painting shows the death of Major-General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham at the Battle of Quebec in 1759 during the Seven Years' War, known in the United States as the French and Indian War. Wolfe was killed by musket fire in the brief battle as he led the British forces to victory, setting in motion the conquest of Canada from the French. We see him lying on the battlefield as he is surrounded and comforted by a group of officers. His figure, creating the base of a pyramidal grouping that rises to the partially furled flag above, and his pale face are lit up with a Christ-like illumination, making him the visual and emotional center of the work. To the left a group of officers stand in attendance, conveying a distress reminiscent of depictions of the mourning of Christ. In the left foreground, a single Indigenous man sits, his chin in his hand, as if deep in thought. Two more officers on the right frame the scene, while in the background the opposing forces mill, and black smoke from the battlefield and storm clouds converge around the intersecting diagonal of the flag. A sense of drama is conveyed as the battle ends with a singular heroic sacrifice.

A number of officers are identifiable, as Captain Harvey Smythe holds Wolfe's arm, Dr. Thomas Hinde tries to staunch the general's bleeding, and Lieutenant Colonel Simon Fraser of the 78 th Fraser Highlanders is shown in his company's tartan. While these identifiable portraits created a sense of accuracy and historical importance, almost all of them were not at the scene, and their inclusion reflects the artist's intention to compose an iconic image of a British hero. The Indigenous warrior has attracted much scholarly interpretation, including the argument that he represents the noble savage, a concept advanced by the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau who extolled the simpler and therefore nobler character of "primitive" peoples. At the same time, his inclusion also places the scene firmly within the New World, for the artist has carefully selected all the significant elements. For instance, in the background a British soldier is racing toward the group, as he carries the captured French flag. As historian Robert A. Bromley wrote, the overall effect is "so natural. and they come so near to the truth of the history, that they are almost true, and yet not one of them is true in fact."

West innovatively reinterpreted the historical painting by depicting a contemporary scene and clothing his figures in contemporary garb. Sir Joshua Reynolds, along with other notable artists and patrons, urged the artist to depict the figures in classical Roman clothing to lend the event greater dignity, but West replied, "The same truth that guides the pen of the historian should govern the pencil of the artist." Infuriated at Wolfe's use of contemporary clothing, King George III declined to purchase the work, and the artist, subsequently, gave it to the Royal Academy where it became widely popular. William Woollett's engravings of the painting found an international audience, and West was commissioned to paint four more copies of the painting. The work, influencing the movement of many artists toward contemporary history painting, paved the way for David's Oath of the Tennis Court (1791) and John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence (1787-1819). Its cultural influence continued well into the modern era, as, during the British Empire, as historian Graeme Wynn noted it, "became the most powerful icon of an intensely symbolic triumph for British imperialism," and in 1921 the British donated the work to Canada in recognition of their service in World War I.

Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss (1777)

The work draws upon the mythological story of Cupid and Psyche as told in The Golden Ass (c. 180) a Latin novel written by Lucius Apuleius. Venus, the goddess of love, was jealous of Psyche, widely admired for her beauty, and sent her son, Cupid, so that his arrows would make the girl marry the ugliest of men. Instead, Cupid fell in love with her, and, learning that the two were lovers, Venus sent Psyche to bring back a jar containing a "divine beauty" from the underworld. Though instructed to not open the jar, Psyche did so, only to fall into the sleep of the dead, as the jar actually contained the "sleep of innermost darkness." This sculpture depicts the moment when Cupid revives Psyche with a kiss. The flowing lines of Psyche's reclining form are echoed in the drapery that partially covers her, and Cupid's melting embrace. Dubbed in his time as the "sculptor of grace and youth," Canova here creates a sense of heroic and innocent love, triumphing over death itself.

Canova's innovative sculptural technique allowed him to convey the effect of living skin, feathered wings, realistically folding drapery, and the rough rock at the base. Reflecting a Neoclassical scientific approach, his study of the human form was rigorous, as he employed precise measurements and life casts in preparation for working on the marble.

For his depiction of Cupid, he was inspired by a Roman painting, which he had seen at the excavation site of Herculaneum. Yet, while firmly posited within Neoclassicism, this work's emphasis on emotion and feeling prefigures the Romantic movement that followed.

The statue has a handle near the base, as like many of Canova's works it was meant to revolve on its base, emphasizing the work's movement and feeling. This innovative decentering of a singular viewpoint was faulted by some critics of the time, including Karl Ludwig Fernow, who wrote, "the observer strives in vain to find a point of view. in which to reduce each ray of tender expression to one central point of convergence." Yet this fluidity of perception created a more intimate relationship to the viewer.

Colonel John Campbell commissioned the sculpture in 1787, and both its treatment and its subject became widely popular with later artists, including the leading 19 th century British sculptor, John Gibson, who studied with Canova in Rome.

Voltaire (1778)

This bust depicts the noted French philosopher and writer, François Marie Arouet de Voltaire, whose wit and intellectual prowess dominated the Neoclassical era. The work is remarkably realistic, its modeling capturing the features of the philosopher toward the end of his life, his thinning hair, the smile lines around his mouth, and his wrinkled brow. Depicted tête nue, or bare-headed without the wig that was fashionable for French aristocrats, the portrait takes on the realism and simplicity of classical Roman busts, allowing the force of the subject's personality to shine forth unimpeded. Houdon captures the sense of Voltaire's shrewd intelligence, as his gaze seems amused with his own interior thoughts.

Count Alexander Sergeyvitch Stronganoff brought this portrait to Russia during the reign of Catherine the Great, who corresponded with Voltaire was devoted to his work. She commissioned several portraits, as well as Houdon's Voltaire Seated in an Armchair (1781), which depicted the philosopher wearing a toga, as if the embodiment of classical Greek philosophy.

Houdon's innovations included his scientific accuracy, as he employed calipers to measure his subject's features and life casts, and pioneered a technique for sculpting eyes that allowed them to capture the light. As art historian John Goldsmith Phillips described, "He first cut out the entire iris, and then bore a deeper hole for the pupil, taking care to leave a small fragment of marble to overhang the iris. The effect is a vivacity and mobility of expression unrivalled in the long history of portrait painting or sculpture."