14 December 1940

14 December 1940

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14 December 1940

December 1940


War at Sea

British destroyers sink the Italian submarine Naiade

The British liner Western Prince is torpedoed in the Atlantic

War in the Air

The RAF attacks Brest and Lorient


Petain dismisses Laval

Bears beat Redskins 73-0 in NFL Championship game

On December 8, 1940, the Chicago Bears trounce the Washington Redskins in the National Football League (NFL) Championship by a score of 73-0, the largest margin of defeat in NFL history. The Bears, coached by George Halas, brought a 6-2 record to their regular-season meeting with the Redskins in Washington on November 17, 1940. After Chicago lost 3-7, the Redskins owner, George Preston Marshall, told reporters that Halas and his team were “quitters” and 𠇌ry babies.” Halas used Marshall’s words to galvanize his players, and the Bears scored 78 points in their next two games to set up a showdown with the Redskins in the league’s championship game on December 8, also in Washington.

Less than a minute into the game, the Bears’ running back Bill Osmanski ran 68 yards to score the first touchdown. After the Redskins narrowly missed an opportunity to tie the game, the Bears clamped down and began to dominate, leaving the field at halftime with a 28-0 lead. Things only got worse for the Redskins, and by the end of the second half officials were asking Halas not to let his team kick for extra points, as they were running out of footballs after too many had been kicked into the stands.

The Bears followed their history-making win with two more consecutive championships, including a game against the New York Giants at Chicago’s Wrigley Field just two weeks after Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor. Many great football players were subsequently drafted into World War II, and Halas himself would leave in 1942 for a tour of duty in the Pacific. In 1946, after the war ended, Halas and a number of former players returned to the team, and the Bears won their fourth NFL Championship in seven years.

14 December 1940 - History

Original Source Documents:

Contributor: Bill Spear

Source: George Domer - Permission granted to post this article on 9/14/2006

Looking Back:
Harold Crist
The Man and His Machines

The circle grows ever, inevitably, smaller and smaller and we who are interested in American Austins, American Bantams and Bantam BRC-40s (Jeeps), are the losers. We would be so much more the loser if some of those who have gone had not been so generous with their recollections of those long ago days. From them we have learned much and so have history and truth to pass on to those still to come and to those present - who care.

Mr. Harold E. Crist was a vital arc of the small circle of persons who were part of the operation of American Bantam Car Company located in Butler, Pennsylvania. Not too many remain but it is fair to say that each would agree that Harold Crist was without a peer in the role he played in the day-to-day endeavors of the small struggling enterprise. His leadership was unquestioned in the physical construction of the small military vehicle destined to become known globally as the Jeep and which is still with us over four decades later.

Some of us were fortunate enough to meet the spry and friendly octogenarian at Butler during the Austin-Bantam Club Convention in July, 1980. Although 83 at the time, his keen mind, his evident pleasure in examining the Austins and Bantams and his noticeable rapport with Bill Lewton's Bantam BRC40 were a joy to the eye of the beholder. He was a man you could very quickly learn to like.

Mr Crist was an old time automobile man. His career took various paths at divers time but his heart was in the auto industry. Eighteen years with Stutz, "The Car That Made Good In A Day" and a stint with Marmon during the Roosevelt development, helped form his background of sound engineering practice. In addition his experience with these firms during trying financial times sharpened his natural innovative aptitude. His time with Stutz was well spent and successful but the greatest ability is often no match for depression in the business world and circumstances over which no individual has control.

All that went before was but prelude to his period of most rewarding labor for American Bantam from 1937 to 1942. Busy, intense years which were personally both frustrating and alternately very satisfying years.

His titles were impressive at Bantam Plant Manager, Chief Engineer and finally BRC Project Manager as well. But due to continual lack of proper operating capital he found each assignment to consist of many lesser duties in addition to the one so designated by title. And he relished the freedom this condition offered. The men of the old circle all felt the challenge and responded to the Crist manner.

It was a Monday to Friday job but most Saturdays found him and at least one other dedicated individual in the experimental department doing his best to improve the Bantam until it was to be second to no other aircraft brakes for Glenn L. Martin in Baltimore were but two examples of his efforts along that line. These contracts and others brought in needed dollars which enabled Bantam to survive as a viable concern until Fate chose to move the little firm to center stage of an incredible and historic production.

Harold Crist, with steadfast modesty, always contended that no single individual was responsible for the creation of Bantam's contribution to mechanized warfare which was quickly dubbed "The Jeep." He maintained it was a Bantam Company engineering and man-power group effort It was not "invented" by any one person or constructed by or along the Ideas set forth by a lone genius or inspired visionary dreamer, It was a culmination of ideas, plans, needs which were evident to men of military experience, and of endless talk after abortive efforts and experiments which had always proved to be far less successful than had been hoped. So no one man was solely responsible when success was finally attained but as a house of cards will not endure the absence of a contributing piece, small car in the world at that time. And they did just about that by the time the gathering clouds of war dictated that the attention of all men had to turn in a different direction.

Before that day, however, he lent his touch to the improvement of steering, shock absorbers, carburation, wiring, brakes and engine performance and reliability. He spent his own money on the development of a three main bearing engine. When the first one was installed in a Bantam roadster he and factory owner Roy Evans drove it to Pittsburgh. It successfully climbed "Armco Hill" leading out of Butler on high gear and Mr. Evans ordered the new power. plant phased into production as rapidly as possible. A great effort but just a little too late. But the car by that stage of development was one he was proud of and remembered fondly.

While doing all this he was also a salesman for the Bantam Company. Not selling cars but contract work for the company's excellent machine and tool making shops. Orders for component parts for neighboring industrial giant "Armco" and aviation products such as just so did the old circle need and depend on each member to do his allotted share. We are here concerned with the share done so ably by Harold E. Crist.

In June 1940 a sub-committee composed of infantry, cavalry, quartermaster officers and civilian engineers met at the Butler plant to examine facilities, inspect a static loaded Bantam chassis, and watch a demonstration. A stripped chassis with minimal seating capacity and stock except for using a lower than standard gearing in the differential had been readied. This vehicle was driven full bore into. over and through a virtually young wilderness combined with a dump situated in the infield of the Butler County race track a short distance west of the Bantam Company plant It was a brutal drive over difficult terrain, The driver who so much impressed Bantam's capabilities on the minds of the amazed officials watching the test was Harold Crist. He had done some auto racing in his younger days and drew on his unforgotten skills at a time they were badly needed for a most serious purpose.

Mr Robert Brown, a civilian engineer from Camp Holabird, Md., later told Crist that he had instructions to say "no" to the Bantam presentation but changed his mind after the exhibition. Brown stayed on at Butler and he and Crist worked out the specifications for the contemplated vehicle. When he left for Holabird, Crist reviewed their ideas and made the decision _that the new vehicle would have to be an entirely new machine rather than a modified Bantam passenger car or truck. He and the few others in management positions set about arranging sources for supply of gear train, transmission, transfer case, drive shaft and axles. It was recognized that Bantam's willing little engine was far less powerful than would be needed for the new machine, so out-of-plant sources of proprietary engines were contacted. All of this was done without a firm order to build a prototype!

When various organizational details fell into place and Mr. Karl Propst, design engineer, arrived in Butler Harold Crist was far enough ahead to be able to brief Propst on the tentative "specs" and the type of vehicle envisioned After a time the two men were able to come up with a configuration to be used when a bid was to be presented by those handling that phase of the projected program.

For those bids Mr. Crist figured the cost of chassis, body parts, and labor Pending the outcome of the bid he started procedures for securing material from which to fabricate many car and chassis parts in advance of engineering. He also selected two other men to assist him in the actual construction of the first vehicle or prototype. Others were selected to provide backup assistance and supply to the three doing the physical creating. Strangely enough the first word of Bantam's successful bidding came from the president of one of the outside engine companies previously contacted! Industry "grape vines" are not really all that new! And Harold Crist was ready to move!

He was known as a "go-getter" and now he proved the phrase aptly applied. As he and his small group worked unremittingly day and night selecting components, assembling, adapting and adjusting parts, solving problems and ever racing time to complete the job within specified bid time limitations. the impossible was accomplished. A new idea in machinery had been built, and in advance of actual engineering rather than in the usual reverse order. Each morning the chief draftsman of the Bantam Company had checked the progress of Harold and his crew, made sketches of the items successfully installed the day and night previously, and added them to the list of builders materials. The end result was a vehicle which incorporated, in all major areas, those ideas which later proved to be so fundamentally correct as to be used in that order even today some forty-odd years later.

Once completed it fell to Harold Crist to do something really historic - but he did not realize it at the time. He became the very first man in the world to drive the very first Jeep in the world, the very first mile! He gave it a tough and thorough test and shortly thereafter it was on the way to Camp Holabird for government qualification tests.

It not only passed them but was honored with the designation of being the most nearly perfect prototype vehicle ever to be submitted Harold Crist had to be happy with his role in the "miracle of the 49 days at Bantam."

His work with the Bantam BRC-40 was far from completed. As the tests were continued he spent full time on the project - at Butler - at suppliers factories - and with the little 4x4 at Camp Holabird. On such a new and untried vehicle there were bound to be problems. With Crist's guidance and with one of his original team of three living at Holabird and sometimes with the "laying on of hands" by Crist, himself, all vexatious situations were solved to the satisfaction of the exacting team of government test men. This was no mean accomplishment as those men had one primary goal to subject a test machine to any and every condition aimed to expose the slightest weakness or flaw.

Regardless of Bantam BRC-40 history from that point on and injustices suffered by the small company from Butler, Pennsylvania in days to come, those successful results must always be recognized as the high point of Bantam history and the cap-stone of the career of Harold E. Crist.

As the war progressed he was able to secure a contract for the Bantam Company to produce a highly complicated 18" aerial torpedo for the British war effort It was a tricky piece of work for which he had to arrange much special tooling, but in the end very largely through Crist's knowledge of methods, the contract resulted in a lucrative success for Bantam.

His last effort for Bantam was in smoothing negotiations which gave Bantam the business of building thousands of 1/4 ton trailers. Ironically, these were designed to be pulled by Jeeps built by firms other than the originator (Bantam), but at a contract price of $150.00 - $160.00 each they did much to ensure the company of a healthy financial picture at war's end.

One more time was Harold Crist ordained to be a part of the creation of a specialized vehicle destined for military use. January 1953 found him busily assembling the old group, the nucleus of the old circle, and ready to tackle a fresh assignment with the old enthusiasm and new insight The company was Mid-America Research Corporation of Wheatland, Pa. The problem was to design and produce a vehicle similar to the Jeep which would be smaller, lighter, more maneuverable and tougher than the 4x4 then in current use. It was a difficult task - and indeed a monumental one - but, again, Harold Crist was happy and equal to the job. Ultimately the vehicle was built in some quantity by American Motors as the "MightyMite" with very slight change from the design laid down by and prototype created by the builders of the world's first Jeep.

January 17, 1982 drew the old circle a little tighter but the rays from that circle will shed their light down through History. One of the brightest beams of all will ever be identified as emanating from engineer, innovator, salesman, diplomat, go-getter, friendly, humble Harold E. Crist. We meet but one such man in a life time we were lucky and honored to have known him. He will not soon be forgotten.

Willys-Overland Home Early Jeep Documents Home

PHOTOS: Today in history — December 14

A smallhorse-drawn sleigh carries passengers during a fall of snow through the streets of Warsaw, Poland, on Dec. 14, 1946. Due to the serious transport shortage in the Polish capital, the horse-drawn vehicles have been given a new lease of life.

J. Walter Christie, right, 70-year-old inventor, shows tank to Governor James M. Curley on Dec. 14, 1937.

Jessica Hill, Associated Press file

In this Dec. 14, 2012, file photo, Carlee Soto reacts as she learns her sister, Victoria Soto, a teacher at the Sandy Hook Elementary School, was one of 26 people killed in a shooting at the school in Newtown, Conn. Absent a magic potion or explosive economic growth, it was all but inevitable President Barack Obama would have to break some of his campaign promises to keep others, because of their incompatibility. In recent years, America has had many scenes of mass shootings. The campus of Virginia Tech University. A shopping center in Tucson, Ariz. A movie theater in Aurora, Colo. A temple in Oak Creek, Wisc. None put gun control back on the national agenda in a serious way. Then came the elementary school massacre in Newtown, Conn., after the election, and that all changed. Or so it seemed.

LEADING TO DOOM - Looking fit and warmly dressed, Capt. Robert F. Scott of the British Navy, leader of the ill-fated 1912 expedition to the South Pole, is seen on skis. His party of five reached the pole Jan. 17th., to find that Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen had got there a month earlier. All of Scott's party died on the way back as they were caught in antarctic sub-zero cold and blizzards, with their supplies giving out.

Men strip gear from a Pershing tank after overturning it to keep road clear during retreat of United Nations forces from North Korea on Dec. 14, 1950. Tank?s track had become dislodged. Later a demolition crew burned the machine.

Chubby Checker, 20-year-old Philadelphia entertainer who started the "Twist" dance craze that has swept the nation, shows just how it's done with a hip-swiveling demonstration at a press reception in London, England, Dec. 14, 1961. Mr.Checker is in Britain for radio and television engagements.

Sharing one of a warm meal from one of the municipal kitchens of Berlin on Dec. 14, 1923, where the heat of the food is a pleasant treat for the poor populace who take the advantage of warmth to guard against the chilly weather.

Memorial services for Roald Amundsen, famous explorer, at the land anchorage of his former ship, the Gjoa, in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco Dec. 14, 1928. Amundsen sailed the Gjoa through the Northwest Passage in 1903, a voyage that took three years to accomplish. The speaker is O.T. Brandrud, Pastor of the Trinity Lutheran Church of Oakland. Norwegian singers are in the background.

British soldiers in Egypt drink water from “Goolahs,” Clay Containers in which water is cooled by slow evaporation through porous walls, Dec. 14, 1940.

Members of the Massachusetts Women’s Defense Corps, who graduated from a regulation firemen’s drill course at the Needham, Mass., station, Dec. 14, 1941, have become proficient in the use of life nets as they demonstrate by catching Marna (cq) Brady, a Wheaton College student, after a two story jump.

Robert Kradin, The Associated Press

Relaxing between work periods, Jack Weiderhorn, left, and Albert L. Best play a game resembling table tennis, except with wooden mallets and beach balls, in New York, Dec. 14, 1946. Cleo Thrice looks on at center.

These three delegates to the American Indian congress at Denver took time between sessions Tuesday, Dec. 14, 1948 to do some Christmas looking in the hotel curio shop. They seemed to find mild amusement in this Indian doll. From Left to right are: John Pawinnee, 78, Ute from Fort Duchesne, Utah Susan Kelly Sioux, and Jack House, 66, Mountain Ute from Towaoc, Colo. Those gloves Pawinnee seems so proud of were made by his wife. They are buckskin, decorated miniature saddles in bead work.

Bill Allen, The Associated Press

Robert Benezra uses a microscope to check the grooves as a machine makes a disc recording of a Voice of America broadcast, in Washington, D.C., Dec. 14, 1954.

The shattered remains of a school bus that collided with a train in Greeley, Colorado, Dec. 14, 1961. The overturned rear of the bus was the largest intact section. 20 children were killed in the accident.

Mary Costa and a group of youngsters play an exact replica of the first phonograph, Thomas A. Edison's famous invention, at Disneyland in Anaheim, Calif., Dec. 14, 1955.

Horst Faas, The Associated Press

Comic strip and television hero Batman has joined the troops in Viet Nam, Dec. 14, 1966. Here he rides an armored cavalry assault vehicle, a light tank that bristles with machine guns.

The wreckage of a chartered airliner lies at the end of a runway off Evansville's Dress Regional Airport in Indiana atop a ridge over a railroad track, Dec. 14, 1977. Wreckage and luggage catapulted down the embankment. The 29 victims were loaded into a box car for removal from the scene.

Reed Saxon, The Associated Press

Actor Christopher Reeve, left, who stars as Superman, accompanies his costar Margot Kidder, who portrays Lois Lane, to the premiere of their movie "Superman" at Mann's Chinese Theater in Hollywood, Calif., Dec. 14, 1978. The premiere benefited the American Diabetes Association.

David Bookstaver, The Associated Press

People jam the street at Central Park West and 72nd Street in New York, just outside the Dakota apartment house where John Lennon lived, Dec. 14, 1980, after leaving a memorial service held at the bandshell in Central Park, across the street. Lennon was murdered as he entered the building at left on Monday, Dec. 8. Police estimated the crowd at 50,000 to 100,000.

Nick Ut, The Associated Press

Joseph Lyle Menendez, left, and his brother, Erik, sit in a court room in Beverly Hills, Calif. , Dec. 14, 1990. Scheduling of a preliminary hearing for the brothers accused of killing their parents was delayed again because of a pending appellate court decision on the admissibility of key evidence.

Country singer Johnny Paycheck is shown performing at the Missouri State Penitentiary in Jefferson City, Mo., on Dec. 14, 1981.

The dead litter the streets in Nanking, China, following the Japanese raid on this city, leaving it in utter devastation, Dec. 14, 1937.

Paula Illingworth, The Associated Press

Tonya Kline, 15, fidgets with the shackles that attach her to her mother, Deborah Harter Thursday, Dec. 14, 1995 in Summerville, S.C. A Family Court judge ordered her to wear the shackles for a month in lieu of being sent to juvenile detention in Columbia.

Rene Macura, The Associated Press

"Titanic" star Leonardo DiCaprio, left, walks past fellow cast member Billy Zane, center, as he arrives for the premiere of the film Sunday, Dec. 14, 1997, at the Mann's Chinese Theater in the Hollywood section of Los Angeles. Accompanying Zane is Jessica Murphy.

Fiftieth anniversary and organized remembrance

Kindertransport children had gathered in small groups over the years, reunited by the hostel they lived in or by the school they attended. In June 1989, however, what had begun as a local 50th anniversary reunion of the Kindertransportees in London (organized by Bertha Leverton, a Kindertransport child still living in that city) became an international reunion, the very first gathering of Kindertransportees regardless of where they had lived during World War II. More than 1,200 Kinder (as the refugees now called themselves, their spouses, and their children) arrived from all parts of the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and elsewhere, as well as from Canada and the United States, where some 2,500 Kinder had immigrated. They gathered to reconnect with old friends, to celebrate their survival, to express their gratitude to the British people, and to honour the parents who had selflessly sent away their children in order to save their lives.

The success of the reunion spurred the formation of the Kindertransport Association in 1989. It is based in New York, and its mission is to locate, reunite, and bring together Kinder and their families, to educate the public about this little-known chapter in Holocaust history, and to assist with charitable work dedicated to helping children without parents, regardless of race or religion. The Kindertransport Association established World Kindertransport Day on December 2, 2013, the 75th anniversary of the day the first Kindertransport arrived in Great Britain.

Re: Afrika Korps December 1940

Post by cormallen » 22 Aug 2010, 20:29

I quite like the idea of Model in charge of DAK getting involved early. Not sure it would be too likely to be soon enough to save an Italian invasion from having some issues though. If Hitler was exerting that much control on Musso in 1940 he could stop the Greek war completely which sidesteps the whole balkan sideshow. that sort of helps both sides a bit, not sure who would gain most long term?
A slightly earlier and tiny bit stronger Barbarossa?
Would leave german airborne guys un-blooded and spare for Malta (or maybe somewhere in Russia?) excursion which helps DAK supply some (though historically Malta did not make too huge a difference until 1942 IIRC?

Presumably the slightly banjaxed brits will be hyping the fearfull 'Desert Wolf' this time round?!

Slightly earlier and tiny bit stronger Barbarossa?

Post by Dave Bender » 22 Aug 2010, 22:44

I don't think it will be much earlier. Germany was waiting for the Pripet Marshes to dry out a bit. However a glance at the Greek / Crete invasion OOB shows the German strength increase for Operation Barbarossa. Looks to me like an additional German field army plus an air fleet.

XL Panzer Corps.
. 9th Panzer Division.
. Reinforced 1st SS Motorized Infantry Regiment.
. 73rd Infantry Division.

XVIII Mountain Corps.
. 2nd Panzer Division.
. 5th Mountain Division.
. 6th Mountain Division.
. 72nd Infantry Division.
. Reinforced 125th Infantry Regiment.

XXX Infantry Corps.
. 50th Infantry Division
. 164th Infantry Division.

Re: Afrika Korps December 1940

Post by bf109 emil » 23 Aug 2010, 14:12

Re: Afrika Korps December 1940

Post by Tim Smith » 24 Aug 2010, 00:59

I quite like the idea of Model in charge of DAK getting involved early. Not sure it would be too likely to be soon enough to save an Italian invasion from having some issues though. If Hitler was exerting that much control on Musso in 1940 he could stop the Greek war completely which sidesteps the whole balkan sideshow. that sort of helps both sides a bit, not sure who would gain most long term?
A slightly earlier and tiny bit stronger Barbarossa?
Would leave german airborne guys un-blooded and spare for Malta (or maybe somewhere in Russia?) excursion which helps DAK supply some (though historically Malta did not make too huge a difference until 1942 IIRC?

Presumably the slightly banjaxed brits will be hyping the fearfull 'Desert Wolf' this time round?!

As far as cancelling the Italian invasion of Greece goes, it depends when Mussolini decides to accept the offer of a German panzer division (until then Hitler has nothing to bargain with.) Hitler and Mussolini had 2 meetings at the Brenner Pass in October 1940 - on the 4th, and on the 28th.

The meeting on the 28th was the one where Mussolini boasted to Hitler that his army had just invaded Greece. So by the time that meeting took place, it was already too late to stop the Italian invasion of Greece. And Mussolini had kept the planned offensive a secret on the 4th October meeting with Hitler.

It would take about a month to get a German panzer division from France to the front line in North Africa, so the 3rd Panzer can be in place by the beginning of December, before the British launch their own offensive against the Italians (Operation Compass) - indeed, the British offensive is almost certain to be cancelled once Wavell realises that a German panzer division has arrived. So if Mussolini accepts the offer of the 3rd Panzer Division on 28 October, the Italian defeat in North Africa can be totally avoided.

After which, supply permitting, the Axis can advance to Mersa Matruh, defeat the British Western Desert Force there, and then pursue to El Alamein. (At which juncture Axis supplies will probably be stretched to breaking point, preventing a complete breakthrough to Alexandria and giving the British time to regroup.)


Hayes Smith was born 7 Feb 1874 in Floyd County, Kentucky to Samuel (L. or James depending on the source) Smith and Rebecca James, per his Social Security Application and Claims on Ancestry. But I later found out that she was Rebecca Jane Coleman, so they must have seen Jane and assumed that was a surname.
I do not believe that the family knew of his parents, as on his death certificate his son Floyd left their names blank. It may have been like so many other stories of young men leaving home for adventure and to seek out their fortunes. The draw of the coal fields with steady pay, may have brought him to the area.

In a talk with Albert Smith (son of Floyd James and Gracie) at the Dairy Queen one morning, he said no one knew Hayes parents. “He came from John's Creek, KY… they lived in the head of John's Creek but he run away and never went back. People came to visit. Hayes and Easter lived on Buck Branch, Marrowbone Creek. Hayes was night watchman at a saw milling, did timbering, cutting. and a farmer.”

When I found the 1880 Floyd Co, KY census, John’s Creek, Voting Prec. #7, with Samuel James and Rebecca Jane Smith, there were 5 children at home. They had daughters Belltory and Nancy J., ages 9 and 6, sons Melvin M. and Rulphford B., ages 5 and 3, and youngest was Easther E. Smith, age 1.
His full name was Rutherford B. Hayes Smith! I know they spelled it a bit wonky in the census but sometimes that was to be expected.
Rutherford B. Hayes was the 19th President, and served from 1877 – 1881. So young Hayes was named for the president elect. I love it! I didn’t expect that would be the case.
From this census I can glean that Samuel was born 1853 Kentucky, and his father born in Virginia and his mother in Kentucky. Both of Rebecca’s parents along with herself, were all born in Kentucky.

On the 1870 Floyd Co, KY census, Prec. #7, Rebecca J., age 15, is living with her mother, Lucinda Coleman. So she had not yet married Samuel Smith though I could not get a marriage to come up for them.

On December 14, 1898 at Harrison Duncan’s in Martin Co, KY, Hayes Smith married Esther/ Easter Ann Aldridge. She was a daughter of James “Curl” Aldridge and Mary Parsley. Her sister Lydia Aldridge was married to Mitchell Henry Brewer and they lived at the forks of Marrowbone creek.

#398 1900 Wayne Co, WV, Lincoln Dist. #4, census bk p.277
Hays Smith, July 1877, 22, Md for 1 year, KY ? KY, farm laborer
Easter Smith, wife, Nov 1879, 20, Md for 1 year, WV WV WV, 0 & 0 = meaning no children born as yet

On April 15, 1910, the Smith family are found in Lincoln Dist #4, Wayne Co, WV. As in 1900, they are living beside Easter’s parents, James and Polly Aldridge.
Hayes and Easter have 3 girls, Pricie, age 10, Polly, age 8, and Amanda, age 2. I’m unsure if the enumerator got the last girls' name wrong, but this was Maude who later married Dodge Hunt.
Easter had listed she gave birth to 5 children, so 2 had passed at this point.

On September 12, 1918, Hayes was aged 44 and a self-employed farmer in Kermit. His wife, Esther, was his nearest relative. Hayes left his mark, being unable to sign for himself. He was of medium height and build, had grey eyes and black hair.
After finding a World War I draft card for his brother Melvin Monroe Smith, he was very close in appearance, having medium height, slender build, grey eyes and black hair.

#52 1920 Wayne Co WV, Lincoln Dist. #4, Marrowbone Road, January 5:
Hayes Smith, 45, KY KY KY, farmer, renting
Esther Smith, 35, WV WV WV, wife
Maude Smith, 12, WV, dau
Vada Smith, 10, WV, dau
Floyd Smith, 8, WV, son
Walter Smith, 4, WV, son
John Smith, 1, WV, son
Pricie Evans, 19, WV, dau
Isabell Evans, 2, WV WV WV, grand dau
Walter Meade, 3, WV WV WV, nephew

In 1930 the family are living on Highway No. 8, which I believe is Rt. 52 – Grey Eagle, Mingo County. The family is renting here also, and Hayes is a farmer. The last of their children, Robert Junior and Mary Ann, were born by this time.

By May 6, 1940, the family seems to be living for the last 5 years, up past Sugar Bowl Curve yet before you arrive at the forks.
Hayes was 66 years old, had not worked the whole year of 1939, and was unable to work so far in 1940. The 3 youngest children are still at home, and Johnnie, age 22, was the breadwinner for the family. He was a laborer for the W. P. A. project.
If you have looked at a 1940 census, you see many people listed with this occupation. It stands for “The Works Progress Administration (WPA) and was an ambitious employment and infrastructure program created by President Roosevelt in 1935, during the bleakest years of the Great Depression. Over its eight years of existence, the WPA put roughly 8.5 million Americans to work.” President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the WPA with an executive order on May 6, 1935.

This whole family reaches far and wide in this area of the country. The first 3 girls married Newsomes.
Daughter PRICIE married first to Kenny Evans and last to Alderson Newsome. They are both buried up on Newsome Ridge.
Daughter POLLY married first to Harrison Newsome, and when he passed at an early age, she married next to William Frank “Mutt” Fitch. Polly and Frank are both buried at the Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery at the forks.
Daughter MAUDE married first to Franklin Newsome, then to Dave Sartin and lastly Dodge Hunt. Maude is buried in the Murphy Cemetery in East Kermit, with her last husband.
Daughter VADA married Oscar Pack and they both are in the cement block enclosed area with her parents.
Son FLOYD JAMES married Gracie Sartin. They are most well-known for running Smith’s Service Center in Kermit for years, and also had part in running the Corner Kitchen. They both are buried at the Brewer-Sartin Cemetery, the first large cemetery you come to after passing the forks on main Marrowbone.
Son WALTER married Dove Marie Brumfield. Their family lived down on the Sugar Bowl Curve and they created the Smith Cemetery up on the top of the point. It is a small cemetery that is mainly their direct family ties.
Son JOHN HENRY “Johnny” married Louinda Parsley. They lived in Kermit early in their marriage but eventually ended up in Columbus, Ohio. They are buried at the Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery.
Son ROBERT JUNIOR married first to Charlene Horner and then Elsie Anna Dingess. He is also buried at the Smith Cemetery at Sugar Bowl Curve.
Daughter MARY ANN, married Edgar Rader and later to a Burr.

Hayes predeceased his wife by a handful of years. Here are their obits which were featured in the Marrowbone Creek Cemeteries Book, Vol. 1:
Williamson Daily News, 6 Jul 1955:
Hayes Smith, 82, of Rt. 1, Kermit, died in a local hospital at 5 p.m. yesterday. He was born May 9, 1873, in Pike County, Ky., and was married to Esther Aldridge, who survives. He was a member of the Freewill Baptist Church. In addition to his wife, Mr. Smith is survived by eight children, Mrs. Pricie Newsome of Naugatuck, Mrs. Pollie Fitch and John of Columbus, O., Mrs. Maudie Hunt, Floyd, Walter and Robert of Kermit, and Mrs. Mary Radar of Xenia, O. 59 grandchildren, 73 great grandchildren, and three sisters, Cora Smith of Pikeville, Ky., Anna Lou Smith of Greenup, Ky. and Mrs. Dixie Scott of Johns Creek, Ky. Funeral services will be conducted at 2 p.m. Friday at the home with the Revs. Riley Messer and Tom Kirk officiating. Interment will follow in the Brewer Cemetery at Marrowbone Creek with Allen Funeral Home. The body was taken to the residence at 1 p.m. today.

Williamson Daily News, 24 May 1961:
Mrs. Easter Smith, 82, of Marrowbone Creek, died at 12:00 a.m. Today at a Williamson hospital. Mrs. Smith was born March 16, 1879, at Marrowbone, daughter of the late James and Polly (Parsley) Aldridge, and was married to Hayes Smith, who also preceded her in death. She was a member of the United Baptist Church. Mrs. Smith survived by four daughters, Mrs. Pricie Newsome of Naugatuck, Mrs. Polly Fitch of Columbus, O., Mrs. Maudie Hunt of Kermit and Mrs. Mary Rader of Xenia, O., four sons, Floyd, Walter, Johnny, and Robert all of Kermit, 61grandchildren, 106 great grandchildren, and many many great -great grandchildren, a brother Alvis Aldridge of Marrowbone, and a sister, Mrs. Lydia A. Brewer of Marrowbone. Funeral services will be conducted at 2:30 p.m. Saturday at the home with Revs. Riley Messer and Conrad Preston officiating. Interment will follow in the Brewer Cemetery at Marrowbone with Ball Funeral Home in charge. Active Pallbearers will be Bobby Rader, Billie Lee Hodge, Donald Ray Smith, Howard Newsome, Earl Smith, Everett Stevenson, Hayes Newsome and Dodge Fitch. The body will be taken to the late residence tomorrow evening.

They are both buried in a cement block wall in the lower portion of the Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery along with a few other close family members.

Voices of World War II, 1937-1945

Among the audiovisual holdings of the National Archives are more than 50,000 sound recordings, the bulk of which date from the 1930's to the present.

From the 1930's are recordings of performances of the Federal Theater and Music Projects of the Works Projects Administration. Beginning in the late 1930's, covering World War II, and continuing to the present, are recordings of press conferences, panel discussions, interviews, and speeches promoting and explaining policies and programs of some 65 Federal agencies. Additional recordings relating to World War II include German, Japanese, and Italian propaganda broadcasts, American propaganda broadcasts in many languages, and news coverage of decisive campaigns of the war.

Stemming mainly from the postwar period are recordings of meetings of Government boards and committees and Government-sponsored conferences. Another major category consists of the oral arguments before the Supreme Court during the 1955-68 sessions. Other types of recordings on deposit include entertainment broadcasts (usually supporting some Federal activity), documentaries and dramas relating to U. S. history, recordings of political conventions and campaigns, and extensive news coverage recordings of events such as the Hindenburg disaster.

The sound recordings listed in this leaflet are representative of the many recordings in the Audiovisual Archives Division that relate to World War II. They are in chronological order, and the speaker and the subject or occasion of each speech are identified. Where appropriate, highlights have been quoted to further identify the speech. The back cover of this leaflet constitutes a form for ordering tape reproductions of the sound recordings. To order a specific recording, print the date, the name of the speaker, the italicized number that follows the item description, and the cost of the reproduction in the proper columns on the order form. Information on recordings not included in this list is available from the Audiovisual Branch of the National Archives.

Unless indicated otherwise, all tapes are recorded at 7.5 I.P.S. (inches per second).

An asterisk following a description means that the recording is subject to copyright and/or other restrictions imposed by the agency-of-transfer or by the donor. Information about restrictions on such a recording and instructions for acquiring clearance can be obtained by writing to the Audiovisual Archives Division, National Archives, Washington, DC 20408.

Recordings (Arranged By Date)

1937, October 5. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, "Quarantine" speech at Chicago, Ill,: ". the will for peace on the part of peace-loving nations must express itself to the end that nations that may be tempted to violate their agreements and the rights of others will desist from such a course." 30 min. RLxA30

1938, February 6. Secretary of State Cordell Hull, "Trade, Prosperity and Peace," an address on the reciprocal trade program. 13 min. 59-1

1938, July 14. President Roosevelt, address at Treasure Island, San Francisco, Calif.: "We fervently hope for the day when the other leading nations of the world will realize that their present course must inevitably lead to disaster." 30 min. RLxA51

1938, August 18. President Roosevelt, address at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario: "We in the Americas are no longer a far away continent, to which the eddies of controversies beyond the seas could bring no interest or no harm." 15 min. 200(R)-189

1938, September 12. Adolf Hitler, address on the Sudeten Germans before a Nazi Congress in Nuremburg. (In German, with English recapitulations at intervals in the speech.) American commentator H. V. Kaltenborn discusses speech and its potential effect on world peace.* 30 min. 48-163

1939, February 20. German-American Bund leader Fritz Kuhn, address to a Bund rally, Madison Square Garden, New York, N.Y.: "We, the German-American Bund, organized as American citizens with American ideals and determined to protect ourselves, our homes, our wives and children against the slimy conspirators who would change this glorious republic into the inferno of a Bolshevik paradise. " (Excerpt recordings of entire speech and rally are available.) 14 min. 131-71, parts 33, 34, 35, 36

1939, September 3. President Roosevelt, fireside chat after Germany's invasion of Poland: "This nation will remain a neutral nation, but l cannot ask that every American remain neutral in thought as well. . As long as it remains within my power to prevent, there will be no black-out of peace in the United States." 16 min. RLxA76

1939, September 19. Hitler, address in Danzig audience cheers and sings "Deutschland ueber Alles," the German national anthem, and the "Horst Wessel Lied" at the end of speech. (In German.) 76 min. 242-182

1939, September 19. Excerpt from Hitler's address in Danzig. Topics Hitler discusses include propaganda against him, the German people's strength and others' weakness, his hatred of war, Germany's attack on Poland and conformity to the rules of warfare, the Versailles Treaty, the Danzig people's suffering after Danzig's separation from the Reich, and Danzig's unity with the German Reich audience cheers and sings "Deutschland ueber Alles" and the "Horst Wessel Lied." (In German, with English recapitulations at intervals in the speech.) 22 min. 48-295

1939, September 21. President Roosevelt, address before a joint session of Congress, convened in special session upon his call, urging repeal of arms embargo provisions of the Neutrality Act of 1937 and enactment of measures governing American shipping, trade with belligerents, and travel on ships of belligerents. 90 min. RLxA77

1939, October 30. "Deutschland ueber Alles" and the "Horst Wessel Lied," sung at a German-American Bund rally in the Hippodrome, New York, NY 4 min. 131-73, part 14

1940, May 19. Charles A. Lindbergh, radio address on America's air defense, broadcast from Washington, D. C.* 15 min. 200(R)-38

1940, May 19. Winston Churchill, first address to the nation as Prime Minister of Great Britain, broadcast from London: "Behind us, behind the armies and fleets of Britain and France, gather a group of shattered states and bludgeoned races. upon all of whom the long night of barbarism will descend, unbroken even by a star of hope, unless we conquer, as conquer we must, as conquer we shall." Elmer Davis of CBS analyzes the speech following the broadcast.* 15 min. 200(R)-37

1940, May 24. King George VI, Empire Day address, broadcast from London: "It is not mere territorial conquest the enemy is seeking, it is the overthrow, complete and final, of the Empire and of everything for which it stands, and after that the conquest of the world." * 15 min. 200(R)-39

1940, May 26. President Roosevelt, fireside chat on national defense: "At this time, when the world--and the world includes our own American Hemisphere--is threatened by forces of destruction, it is my resolve and yours to build up our armed defenses." 30 min. 200(R)-40

1940, June 10. Benito Mussolini, reading Italy's declaration of war against Great Britain and France. (In Italian.) 15 min. 242-84

1940, June 10. President Roosevelt, address at the University of Virginia: "On this tenth day of June, 1940, the hand that held the dagger has struck it into the back of its neighbor. . we will extend to the opponents of force the material resources of this nation and, at the same time, we will harness and speed up the use of those resources in order that we ourselves in the Americas may have equipment and training equal to the task of any emergency and every defense." 30 min. RLxA-86

1940, October 16. President Roosevelt, radio address on Selective Service Registration Day: "We are mobilizing our citizenship, for we are calling on men and women and property and money to join in making our defense effective. Today's registration for training and service is the keystone in the arch of our national defense." 6 min. 200(R)-201A

1940, October 29. President Roosevelt, radio address on the occasion of the drawing of numbers under the Selective Service Act of 1940, Washington, D. C.: ". our democratic army has existed for one purpose only: the defense of our freedom." 14 min. 200(R)-201B

1940, December 29. President Roosevelt, fireside chat on national security: "There can be no appeasement with ruthlessness. We must be the great arsenal of democracy." 42 min. 200(R)-83

1941, January 6. President Roosevelt, annual message to Congress: "In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants- everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world." 40 min. 200(R)-206

1941, February 24. Raymond E. Willis, U. S. Senator from Indiana, speaking against the lend-lease bill. 15 min. 200(R)-36

1941, March 15. President Roosevelt, address at annual dinner of White House Correspondents' Association: "The light of democracy must be kept burning." 30 min. 200(R)-205

1941, March 29. President Roosevelt, radio address from the U.S.S. Potomac to Jackson Day dinners: ". .. the time calls for courage and more courage." 15 min. 200(R)-205B

1941, April 30. President Roosevelt, radio address on the occasion of his purchase of the first defense savings bond and stamps. 7 min. 200(R)-205A

1941, May 16. Ignace Jan Paderewski, President of the Council of Poland and former Prime Minister of Poland, public service broadcast urging Americans to buy U. S. defense savings bonds and discussing his experience in war-torn Europe, the German invasion of Poland, and the need to defeat Germany. 16 min. 56-58

1941, July 4. President Roosevelt, Fourth of July address at Hyde Park, NY: ". the United States will never survive as a happy and fertile oasis of liberty surrounded by a cruel desert of dictatorship." 6 min. 200(R)-204B

1941, September 1. President Roosevelt, Labor Day radio address: ". we shall do everything in our power to crush Hitler and his Nazi forces." l0 min. 200(R)-204C

1941, September 9. "Paul Revere" (Douglas Chandler, an American citizen), propaganda broadcast from the heart of Nazi Germany on the eve of the third anniversary of the Axis Pact. Chandler lauds the Axis victories and castigates the "opponents of world progress led by 'Churchill the Charlatan' and 'Roosevelt the Renegade.'" 15 min. 60-76

1941, September 11. President Roosevelt, fire-side chat on freedom of the seas: ". when you see a rattlesnake poised to strike, you do not wait until he has struck before you crush him." 30 min. 200(R)-207

1941, December 7. KGU newsman's report from a rooftop in Honolulu to NBC in New York describing the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, damage suffered, and the fighting still in process. NBC newsmen read bulletins as they are received.* 15 min. 200(R)-54

1941, December 7. H. V. Kaltenborn analyzes the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.* 15 min. 200(R)-53

1941, December 8. President Roosevelt, address before a joint session of Congress asking that a state of war be declared between the United States and the Japanese Empire: "Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy. " l3 min. 200(R)-49

1941, December 9. President Roosevelt, fireside chat to the nation following the declaration of war with Japan: "We are going to win the war and we are going to win the peace that follows." 29 min. 200(R)-210

1941, December 24. President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, Christmas tree lighting ceremonies, White House, Washington, D. C. Roosevelt: "Our strongest weapon in this war is that conviction of the dignity and brotherhood of man which Christmas Day signifies-more than any other day or any other symbol." Churchill: "We may cast aside, for this night at least, the cares and dangers which besiege us and make for the children an evening of happiness in a world of storm."* 30 min. 200(R)-75

1941, December 25. British refugee children in the United States, Canada, and South Africa exchanging Christmas greetings with their parents in Great Britain.* 30 min. 200(R)-71

1941, December 26. Prime Minister Churchill, address to a joint session of Congress: "I cannot help reflecting that if my father had been American and my mother British, instead of the other way 'round, I might have got here on my own." 40 min. 200(R)-74

1941, December 28. "Berlin to North America," German radio broadcast in English, communique from the Fuehrer's headquarters: Supreme Commander's report on German military operation, read by an unidentified announcer "Lord Haw Haw" (William Joyce), propaganda broadcast to Great Britain. 30 min. 262-21439

1942, February 19. Italian radio broadcast, including a 15-minute speech by Ezra Pound entitled "Power": "The President hath power. The President has no legal power to enter into devious and secret agreements with foreign powers. To send the boys from Omaha to Singapore to die for British monopoly and brutality is not the act of an American patriot." * 36 min. 262-24390

1942, February 22. CBS public service program to stimulate homefront support of the war effort: Sgt. Alvin C. York, World War I veteran, speaks from Knoxville, Tenn., and Richard Martin Scheuns, Sr., German-American veteran of World War I, speaks from Memphis, Tenn. Barry Kroger, narrator.* 30 min. 48-325

1942, February 22. Mary Anderson, Director of the Women's Bureau, Department of Labor, radio broadcast on women's contributions and value to the war effort, their prewar difficulties in obtaining jobs in industry, the types of positions women fill, and equal wages for men and women. 18 min. 48-360

1942, February 23. President Roosevelt, fireside chat on the progress of the war: ". we must keep on striking our enemies wherever and whenever we can meet them. . . . Never before have we been called upon for such a prodigious effort. Never before have we had so little time in which to do so much." 36 min. 200(R)-211

1942, April 28. President Roosevelt, fireside chat on the Seven-Point Economic Stabilization Program: "The price for civilization must be paid in hard work and sorrow and blood." 34 min. at 3.75 I.P.S. 48-329

1942, May 8. Vice President Henry Wallace. address at dinner of the Free World Association, Commodore Hotel, New York, NY, entitled "What Are We Fighting For?": "This is a fight between a slave world and a free world. . The world must make its decision for a complete victory, one way or another." 40 min. 208-2

1942, May 30. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles, speech at Memorial Day ceremony, Arlington National Cemetery, "None of us can afford to think of ourselves. None of us can dare to do less than his full part in the common effort. " 35 min. 200(R)-78

1942, June 12. President Roosevelt, radio appeal for support of the scrap rubber campaign, held because the Japanese had cut off ca.92 percent of the U. S. rubber supply. 8 min. 200(R)-212B

1942, July 23. Secretary of State Hull, "What America Is Fighting For," an address on U. S. war aims. 44 min. 59-4

1942, August 6. President Roosevelt, remarks on presentation under lend-lease of a submarine chaser to Queen Wilhelmina for the Dutch Navy, Washington Navy Yard: "We, too, are fighting for our freedom and it is natural and right that The Netherlands and the United States have joined hands in the common struggle." 4 min. 200(R)-212A

1942, September 7. President Roosevelt, Labor Day fireside chat on the cost of living and the progress of the war: "If the vicious spiral of inflation ever gets under way, the whole economic system will stagger." 30 min. 200(R)-214

1942, September 16. President Roosevelt, remarks on the transfer under lend-lease of a submarine chaser to Norway: "If there is anyone who still wonders why this war is being fought, let him look to Norway." 5 min. 200(R)-213A

1942, November 8. John R. Richards, Supervisor of Gas Rationing, Office of Price Administration (OPA), Raymond Berry, chairman of the Detroit Board of Commerce, Royce Howes, Detroit Free Press, and George Cushing, WJR moderator, radio discussion of gasoline rationing in the Detroit area and its effect on warworkers and war production followed by a bulletin announcing the Allied invasion of North Africa. 30 min. 188-5

1942, November 19. Leon Henderson, OPA Administrator, James Kennedy, chairman of the War Price and Rationing Board of Middleboro, Mass., Mrs. Arthur W. Flint, and Luther R. Harris, radio discussion of fuel-oil rationing in the New England area and converting oil heating units to coal. 15 min. 188-141

1942, November. Corp. John F. Barctek relating the rescue of himself, Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker, and other crew members of a flying fortress after they had drifted for 22 days on a raft in the Pacific. 7 min. 407-5

1942, December 10. OPA Administrator Henderson answering consumers' questions about rationing and rent and price controls. 15 min. 188-144

1942, December 31. Paul O'Leary, OPA Deputy Administrator in Charge of Rationing, discussing the new point-rationing system of canned and packaged foods. 15 min. 188-146

1943, February 18. Madame Chiang, wife of Chiang Kai-shek, President of the Chinese Republic, address to a joint session of Congress on American-Chinese relations and the war effort. 25 min. 12-11

1943, May 2. President Roosevelt, fireside chat on the Federal seizure of the coal mines to prevent a strike: "There can be no one among us-no one faction-powerful enough to interrupt the forward march of our people to victory." 30 min. 208-94

1943, May 7. Joseph Goebbels, propaganda minister of the Third Reich, address at funeral of Viktor Lutze, S.A. leader of Hanover. (In German.) 30 min. 262-203

1943, May 14. Prime Minister Churchill, radio address to the British Home Guard from the White House, Washington, D. C.* 15 min. 200(R)-128

1943, May 19. Prime Minister Churchill, address before a joint session of Congress: "For more than five hundred days-every day a day we have toiled and suffered and dared, shoulder to shoulder against the cruel enemy-we have acted in close combination or concert in many parts of the world, on land, on sea, and in the air."* 58 min. 200(R)-129

1943, June 10. President Roosevelt, address on the transfer under lend-lease of a submarine chaser to the Greek Government, Washington Navy Yard: "Today, Greece is a gaunt and haggard sample of what the Axis is so eager and willing to hand to all the world." 5 min. 200(R)-217A

1943, July 28. President Roosevelt, fireside chat on the progress of the war and plans for peace: "The massed, angered forces of common humanity are on the march. . . . The first crack in the Axis has come. The criminal, corrupt Fascist regime in Italy is going to pieces." 30 min. 200(R)-223

1943, October 4. Heinrich Himmler. head of the Gestapo and SS, at a meeting of SS major generals held in Posen, occupied Poland, speaking of German suffering and loss of life in Russia and openly expressing his determination to eliminate European Jews. (Excerpt of speech: in German.) 15 min. 242-229

1943, December 24. President Roosevelt. Christmas Eve fireside chat on Teheran and Cairo Conferences: "Keep us strong in our faith that we fight for a better day for humankind." 30 min. 200(R)-221

ca. 1943 Dillon S. Meyer. Director of the War Relocation Authority, interviewed by an unidentified NBC newsman, discussing the relocation of approximately 110,000 Japanese-Americans from the west coast of the United States to 10 relocation centers in seven States. Topics include the administration living conditions, educational and medical facilities, and staffing of the centers.* 14 min. 210-12

ca. 1943. J. William Fulbright. Congressman from Arkansas and U S. delegate, to the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education, speaking of Nazi destruction of educational facilities in conquered countries, the need to help conquered peoples reconstruct their educational systems when they are liberated, and congressional support of the Conference. 8 min. 208-324

ca. 1943. Harriet Elliot. Associate Administrator in Charge of the Consumer Division. OPA, explaining to women how to conserve products needed for the war effort. 12 min. 48-35

1944, March 11. Lord Halifax. British Ambassador to the United States: "Lend-lease was born of a great conviction and a great need. . How could the United States help Britain to carry on to a victory that was as vital to her and to the world as it was to us? The President and his advisers found the answer to the question in lend-lease." 8 min. 208-332

1944, April 5. Wendell Wilkie, statement of withdrawal from the presidential race after being defeated in the Wisconsin Republican primary. 6 min. 200(R)-108

1944, June 5. President Roosevelt, fireside chat on the fall of Rome: "The first of the Axis capitals is now in our hands. One up and two to go!" 15 min. 200(R)-224

1944, June 6. President Roosevelt. prayer for the success of the Normandy invasion and for eventual world peace. 8 min. 208-110A

1944, June 12. President Roosevelt, fireside chat opening the Fifth War Loan Drive and reporting on the progress of the war. 15 min. 200(R)-222A

1944, August. Glenn Perry: "There can be no question that the war in Europe has been shortened by the Allied landings on the Mediterranean coast of France. . . . It seems reasonable to hope that all of France will be liberated by Allied military might before the holiday that Americans call Thanksgiving Day."* 7 min. 208-310

1944, June. Brig. Gen. H. S. Hansell, report on American B-29 bomber strikes against the Germans and Japanese. 3 min. 208-318

1944, July 20. President Roosevelt, address broadcast from a Pacific-coast naval base to the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Ill.. accepting a fourth-term nomination. 20 min. 200(R)-142

1944, July 27. Berlin broadcast to Allied forces: war news: "Surpassing the Enemy's Head Start." by Reich Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, read by a Nazi commentator: "Home Sweet Home," a program consisting of American music and comments by "Midge," Mildred Elizabeth Gillars. an American citizen dubbed "Axis Sally" by the GIs. 60 min. at 3.75 I.P.S. 262-09315

1944, August 14. "Zero Hour," Japanese broadcast to Allied forces in the South Pacific: music war news and commentary music with "Ann the Orphan," Iva Toguri D'Aquino, a Japanese-American, dubbed "Tokyo Rose" by the GIs news from the United States, including news of the presidential campaign music and commentary. 35 min. 262-107

1944, August 31. Warren Austin, U. S. Senator from Vermont, speaking on world peace, following the World Security Conference at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D. C. 8 min. 208-277

1944, August. Jennings Randolph, Congressman from West Virginia and chairman of the House District Committee, congratulating the French people on the liberation of Paris. 5 min. 208-307

1944, September 22. John Cooper, NBC war correspondent, report from a navy cruiser in the Pacific describing the action aboard the ship during the first landing of U. S. troops on the island of Palau.* 12 min. 38-7

1944, October 5. President Roosevelt, radio address from the White House during presidential campaign: "The right to vote must be open to our citizens irrespective of race, color, or creed-without tax or artificial restriction of any kind." 30 min. 200(R)-112

1944, October 12. President Roosevelt, address on accepting the Four Freedoms Award, presented by the Italian-American Labor Council: "The American Army--including thousands of Americans of Italian descent--entered Italy not as conquerors, but as liberators. Their objective is military, not political. When that military objective is accomplished--and much of it has not yet been accomplished--the Italian people will be free to work out their own destiny, under a government of their own choosing." 7 min. 200(R)-227B

1944, October 21. President Roosevelt, radio address at dinner of the Foreign Policy Association, New York. N.Y.: "Peace, like war, can succeed only where there is a will to enforce it, and where there is available power to enforce it." 57 min. 200(R)-113

1944, December 29. Gen. Anthony C. McAuliffe recounting the German demand to surrender Bastogne, Belgium, which was held by the 101st Airborne Division against overwhelming odds, and his reply. "Nuts!" 2 min. 208-3

ca. 1944. "Soldiers with Coupons," a radio dramatization by the OPA explaining rationing, price controls, and their purposes. 15 min. 188-26

1945, January 20. President Roosevelt, fourth inaugural address, "We have learned to be citizens of the world, members of the human community." (Roosevelt's wartime inauguration in order to save money, manpower, and materials, it was held in front of the White House rather than at the Capitol.) 30 min. 200(R)-147

1945, March 1. President Roosevelt. address to the Congress, reporting on the Yalta Conference and discussing the upcoming San Francisco Conference: "Twenty-five years ago, American fighting men looked to the statesmen of the world to finish the work of peace for which they fought and suffered. We failed them then. We cannot fail them again, and expect the world again to survive." 60 min. 200(R)-148

1945, April 14. NBC announcer describing the arrival of President Roosevelt's funeral train at Union Station, Washington. D. C., and the procession from Union Plaza down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House.* 2 hrs. 7 min. 208-134

1945, April 16. President Harry S. Truman, first official appearance before Congress as President: "With great humility I call upon all Americans to help me keep our nation united in defense of those ideals which have been so eloquently proclaimed by Franklin Roosevelt." 30 min. 200(R)-163

1945, April 25. President Truman, address opening the San Francisco Conference of the United Nations: ". I earnestly appeal to each and every one of you to rise above personal interests, and adhere to those lofty principles, which benefit all mankind." 15 min. 200(R)-165

1945, May 2. NBC newsman describing the signing of unconditional surrender by German forces in Italy at Caserta. April 29, 1945 (the first formal surrender since Allied troops entered Europe), and reading a statement issued by President Truman.* 17 min. 208-163

1945, May 30. Adm. Chester W. Nimitz, address urging Americans to take jobs in shipyards and to buy more war bonds. 8 min. 38-5

1945, June 18. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, report to a joint session of Congress on the war in Europe and Africa, the defeat of Germany, and British-American relations and discussion of what remained to be done to win the war in the Pacific. 28 min. 38-15

1945, August 9. President Truman, radio report to the American people on the Potsdam Conference and the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. 30 min. 200(R)-149

1945, September 1. The surrender of Japan: Gen. Douglas MacArthur opens the surrender ceremony aboard the battleship U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, presides over the signing, and closes the ceremony. Newscasters Webley Edwards and Merrill Mueller describe the proceedings. President Truman, address to the American people from the White House after the singing: "The thoughts and hopes of all America-indeed of all the civilized world-are centered tonight on the battleship Missouri. There on that small piece of American soil anchored in Tokyo Harbor the Japanese have just officially laid down their arms. They have signed terms of unconditional surrender." General MacArthur, proclamation of victory: "Today the guns are silent, a great tragedy has ended, a great victory has been won, the skies no longer rain death, the seas bear only calmness, men everywhere walk upright in the sunlight, the entire world lies quietly at peace, the whole mission has been completed." Admiral Nimitz, proclamation of victory: "On all naval vessels at sea and in port and at our many island bases in the Pacific, there is rejoicing and thanksgiving. A long and bitter struggle which Japan started so treacherously on December 7, 1941, is at an end." * 53 min. 200(R)-124

An up-to-date price list may be obtained by writing to the Audiovisual Archives Division (NNVM), General Services Administration, Washington, DC 20408.

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
Contact us with questions or comments.

The Carrington Event of 1859 was the first documented event of a solar flare impacting Earth. The event occurred at 11:18 a.m. EDT on Sept. 1 and is named after Richard Carrington, the solar astronomer who witnessed the event through his private observatory telescope and sketched the sun's sunspots at the time. The flare was the largest documented solar storm in the last 500 years, NASA scientists have said.

According to NOAA, the Carrington solar storm event sparked major aurora displays that were visible as far south as the Caribbean. It also caused severe interruptions in global telegraph communications, even shocking some telegraph operators and sparking fires when discharges from the lines ignited telegraph paper, according to a NASA description.

Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1940-1945

For information on the doctrine for the employment of submarines in the war,
see Current Doctrine: Submarines (USF 25(A).
For WWII Fleet Submarine technical manuals,
see Navy Manuals and Documents Online

United States Submarine Losses--World War II

Submarines are group by class below:

O Type:

  • Displacement: 480 tons surfaced, 624 tons submerged
  • Length: 172'4"
  • Beam: 17'6"
  • Draft: 13'3"
  • Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/23, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 8 18" torpedoes
  • Complement: 33
  • Diesel engines, 880 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 740 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 4,000 at 11 knots surfaced 50 miles at 5 knots submerged
  • Built by Bethlehem

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-63 O-2 1918 Built at Puget Sound Navy Yard
SS-64 O-3 1918
SS-65 O-4 1918
SS-67 O-6 1918
SS-68 O-7 1918
SS-69 O-8 1918
SS-70 O-9 1918 20Jun41, off the Isle of Shoals
SS-71 O-10 1918

R Type:

  • Displacement: 530 tons surfaced, 680 tons submerged
  • Length: 186'1"
  • Beam: 17'6"
  • Draft: 13'8"
  • Speed: 13.5 knots surfaced, 10.5 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 8 18" torpedoes
  • Complement: 34
  • Diesel engines, 880 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 934 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 3,700 miles at 10 knots surfaced 100 miles at 10 knots submerged
  • Built at Bethlehem Yards

(*: Lend-Lease to U.K.)

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-78 R-1 1918
SS-79 R-2 1919
SS-80 R-3 *1919
SS-81 R-4 1919
SS-82 R-5 1919
SS-83 R-6 1919
SS-85 R-8 1919
SS-86 R-9 1919
SS-87 R-10 1919
SS-88 R-11 1919
SS-89 R-12 1919 12 Jun 43 unknown, E. Coast
SS-90 R-13 1919
SS-91 R-14 1919
SS-92 R-15 1918
SS-93 R-16 1918
SS-94 R-17 *1918
SS-95 R-18 1918
SS-96 R-19 *1918
SS-97 R-20 1919

S-1 Type:

  • Displacement: 800 tons surfaced, 1062 tons submerged
  • Length: 219'3"
  • Beam: 20'6"
  • Draft: 15'1"
  • Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 12-14 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 50
  • Diesel engines, 1200 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged

(*: Lend-Lease to U.K.)

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-105 S-1 *1920
SS-123 S-18 1924
SS-125 S-20 1922
SS-126 S-21 *1923
SS-127 S-22 *1924
SS-128 S-23 1923
SS-129 S-24 *1923
SS-130 S-25 *1923
SS-131 S-26 1923 : 25 Jan 42 accidentally rammed and sunk by PC-460 near Panama
SS-132 S-27 1924 : 19 Jun 42 swept onto reefs in the Aleutians
SS-133 S-28 1923 : 4 Jul 44 accident, Hawaii
SS-134 S-29 *1924
SS-135 S-30 1920
SS-136 S-31 1923
SS-137 S-32 1923
SS-138 S-33 1922
SS-139 S-34 1923
SS-140 S-35 1923
SS-141 S-36 1923 : Mar 42 grounded near Java
SS-142 S-37 1923
SS-143 S-38 1923
SS-144 S-39 1923 : 14 Aug 42 grounded, Rossell Island
SS-145 S-40 1923
SS-146 S-41 1924

S-11 Type:

  • Displacement: 790 tons surfaced, 1092 tons submerged
  • Length: 231'
  • Beam: 21'6"
  • Draft: 12'6"
  • Speed: 15 knots surfaced, 10.5 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 44
  • Diesel engines, 2000 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1200 h.p. submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-116 S-11 19
SS-117 S-12 19
SS-118 S-13 19
SS-119 S-14 1921
SS-120 S-15 1921
SS-121 S-16 1920
SS-122 S-17 1921

S-42 Type:

  • Displacement: 850 tons surfaced, 1126 tons submerged
  • Length: 225'3"
  • Beam: 20'6"
  • Draft: 15'3"
  • Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 51
  • Diesel engines, 1200 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-153 S-42 1924
SS-154 S-43 1924
SS-155 S-44 1925 : 8 Oct 43 gunfire, in the Aleutians
SS-156 S-45 1925
SS-157 S-46 1925
SS-158 S-47 1925

S-48 Type:

  • Displacement: 1000 tons surfaced, 1458 tons submerged
  • Length: 267'
  • Beam: 21'6"
  • Draft: 10'11"
  • Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow and 1 stern(?) torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 51
  • Diesel engines, 2000 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-159 S-48 1922

B Type:

  • Displacement: 2000 tons surfaced, 2506 tons submerged
  • Length: 341'6"
  • Beam: 27'1"
  • Draft: 14'7"
  • Speed: 18 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 5"/51, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 80
  • Diesel engines, 6700 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 2400 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 10,000 miles at 11 knots surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-163 Barracuda 1925
SS-164 Bass 1925
SS-165 Bonita 1926

A Type:

  • Mine-Laying Submarine:
  • Displacement: 2170 tons surfaced, 4080 tons submerged
  • Length: 381'
  • Beam: 33'10"
  • Draft: 15'4"
  • Speed: 15 knots surfaced, 8 knots submerged
  • Armament: 2 6"/53, 24 21" bow torpedo tubes, 60 mines
  • Complement: 89
  • Diesel engines, 3175 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 2400 h.p. submerged
  • Built at Portsmouth Navy Yard

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SM-1 Argonaut 1928

Converted to Transport Submarine APS-1
10Jan43 depth charges and gunfire in S.W. Pacific

Nautilus Class:

  • Displacement: 2730 tons surfaced, 3960 tons submerged
  • Length: 371'
  • Beam: 33'3"
  • Draft: 15'9"
  • Speed: 17 knots surfaced, 8.5 knots submerged
  • Armament: 2 6"/53, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 100
  • Diesel engines, 5450 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 2540 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 18,000 miles surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-167 Narwhal 1930
SS-168 Nautilus 1930

Dolphin Class:

  • Displacement: 1540 tons surfaced, 2215 tons submerged
  • Length: 319'1"
  • Beam: 27'10"
  • Draft: 13'
  • Speed: 17 knots surfaced, 8 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 77
  • Diesel engines, 4250 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1750 h.p. submerged
  • Built at Portsmouth Navy Yard

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-169 Dolphin 1932

Cachalot Class:

  • Displacement: 1110-1130 tons surfaced, 1650 tons submerged
  • Length: 271'9"'
  • Beam: 24'9"
  • Draft: 12'10"
  • Speed: 17 knots surfaced, 8 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 55
  • Diesel engines, 3100 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1600 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 10,000 miles surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-170 Cachalot 1933
SS-171 Cuttlefish 1934

Porpoise Class:

P-1 Type:

  • Displacement: 1310 tons surfaced, 1934 tons submerged
  • Length: 301'
  • Beam: 25'
  • Draft: 13'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 73
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-173 Pike 1935
SS-172 Porpoise 1935

P-3 Type:

  • Displacement: 1315 tons surfaced, 1968 tons submerged
  • Length: 298'
  • Beam: 25'
  • Draft: 13'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 73
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-174 Shark 1936 : Mar 42 off Celebes
SS-175 Tarpon 1936

P-5 Type:

  • Displacement: 1,330 tons surfaced, 1,998 tons submerged
  • Length: 300'6"
  • Beam: 25'
  • Draft: 13'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 73
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-176 Perch 1936 : Mar 42 Java Sea
SS-178 Permit 1937
SS-177 Pickerel 1937 : < 15 Aug 43 unknown causes
SS-179 Plunger 1936
SS-180 Pollack 1937
SS-181 Pompano 1937 : 5 Jan 44 unknown causes

Salmon Class:

  • Displacement: 1,450 tons surfaced, 2,198 tons submerged
  • Length: 298'
  • Beam: 26'
  • Draft: 14'3"
  • Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 75
  • Diesel engines/electric motors
  • Range: 15,000 miles surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-182 Salmon 1938
SS-183 Seal 1938
SS-184 Skipjack 1938
SS-185 Snapper 1937
SS-186 Stingray 1938
SS-187 Sturgeon 1938

Sargo Class:

  • Displacement: 1,450 tons surfaced, 2,350 tons submerged
  • Length: 300'
  • Beam: 27'
  • Draft: 13'9"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 78
  • Diesel engines/electric motors
  • Range: 15,000 miles surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-192 Sailfish
SS-188 Sargo 1939
SS-189 Saury 1939
SS-191 Sculpin 1939 : 19 Nov 43 gunfire from IJN Yamagumo near Truk
SS-194 Seadragon 1939
SS-195 Sealion 1939 : 10 Dec 41 bombs in Manila Bay
SS-196 Searaven 1939
SS-197 Seawolf 1939 : 3 Oct 44 hedgehog attack from Richard M. Rowell
SS-190 Spearfish 1939
SS-193 Swordfish 1939 : 12 Jan 45 depth charge(?) off Okinawa

Tambor Class:

  • Displacement: 1475 tons surfaced, 2198 tons submerged
  • Length: 308'
  • Beam: 27'
  • Draft: 13'9"
  • Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 75
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-198 Tambor 1940
SS-199 Tautog 1940
SS-200 Thresher 1940
SS-201 Triton 1940 : < 22 Jul 43 unknown causes
SS-202 Trout 1940 : 29 Feb 44 depth charge SSE of Okinawa
SS-203 Tuna 1941

Mackerel Class:

  • Displacement: 825 tons surfaced, 1179 tons submerged
  • Length: 253'
  • Beam: 21'6"
  • Draft: 11'9"
  • Speed: 16 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 42
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-204 Mackerel 1941
SS-205 Marlin 1941

Gar Class:

  • Displacement: 1475 tons surfaced, 2000(?) tons submerged
  • Length: 253'
  • Beam: 21'6"
  • Draft: 11'9"
  • Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 85
  • Diesel engines, 6500 h.p. surfaced/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-206 Gar 1941
SS-207 Grampus 1941 : 5 Mar 43 unknown, near Kula Gulf
SS-208 Grayback 1941 : 27 Feb 44 air attack(?) between Luzon and Formosa
SS-209 Grayling 1941 : < 24 Dec 43 unknown causes
SS-210 Grenadier 1941 : < 14 Sep 43 unknown causes
SS-211 Gudgeon 1941 : Apr 44 unknown causes out of Pearl Harbor

Gato Class:

  • Displacement: 1526 tons surfaced, 2424 tons submerged
  • Length: 311'
  • Beam: 27'3"
  • Draft: 16'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50 or 1 4"/50 or 1 5"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes (loaded tubes plus reloads: 10 forward, 4 aft)
  • Complement: 80
  • Diesel engines, surfaced/electric motors, submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-218 Albacore 1942 : 7 Nov 44? mine, off Hokkaido?
SS-219 Amberjack 1942 : 16 Feb 43 IJN depth charges near Rabaul
SS-240 Angler 1943 ?
SS-220 Barb 1942
SS-241 Bashaw 1943
SS-221 Blackfish 1942
SS-222 Bluefish 1943
SS-242 Bluegill 1943
SS-223 Bonefish 1943 : 19 Jun 45 Toyama Wan, Honshu
SS-243 Bream 1944
SS-244 Cavalla 1944
SS-225 Cero 1943
SS-245 Cobia 1944
SS-224 Cod 1943
SS-226 Corvina 1943 : 16 Nov 43 torpedoed by I-176 SW of Truk
SS-246 Croaker 1944
SS-247 Dace 1943
SS-227 Darter 1943 : 24 Oct 44 grounded in Palawan Passage then bombed
SS-248 Dorado 1943 : 12 Oct 43 bombed by U.S. Mariner in Caribbean
SS-228 Drum 1941
SS-230 Finback 1942
SS-249 Flasher 1943
SS-250 Flier 1943 : 19 Sep 44 unknown causes
SS-251 Flounder 1943
SS-229 Flying Fish 1941
SS-252 Gabilan 1943
SS-212 Gato 1941
SS-213 Greenling 1942
SS-214 Grouper 1942
SS-215 Growler 1942 : 8 Nov 44 reported missing after attacking convoy SW of Luzon (depth charges)?
SS-216 Grunion 1942 : < 5 Oct 42 unknown causes
SS-217 Guardfish 1942
SS-253 Gunnel 1942
SS-254 Gurnard 1942
SS-255 Haddo 1942
SS-231 Haddock 1942
SS-256 Hake 1942
SS-232 Halibut 1942
SS-257 Harder 1942 : 24 Aug 44 depth charges, SW Pacific
SS-233 Herring 1942 : 1 Jun 44 shore battery in the Kuriles
SS-258 Hoe 1942
SS-259 Jack 1943
SS-234 Kingfish 1942
SS-260 Lapon 1943
SS-261 Mingo 1943
SS-262 Muskallunge 1943
SS-263 Paddle 1943
SS-264 Pargo 1943
SS-265 Peto 1942
SS-266 Pogy 1943
SS-267 Pompon 1943
SS-268 Puffer 1943
SS-269 Rasher 1943
SS-270 Raton 1943
SS-271 Ray 1943
SS-272 Redfin 1943
SS-273 Robalo 1943 : 26 Jul 44 battery explosion? off Palawan
SS-274 Rock 1943
SS-275 Runner 1942 : < 27 Oct 43 unknown causes
SS-276 Sawfish 1942
SS-277 Scamp 1942 : 11 Nov 44? depth charge, S. of Tokyo Bay?
SS-278 Scorpion 1942 : < 22 Mar 44 unknown causes
SS-235 Shad 1942
SS-236 Silversides 1941
SS-279 Snook 1942 : <: 4 Aug 45 unknown causes
SS-280 Steelhead 1942
SS-281 Sunfish 1942
SS-283 Tinosa 1943
SS-237 Trigger 1942 : 28 Mar 45 depth charge, off Okinawa
SS-284 Tullibee 1943 : 26 Mar 44 circular return of own torpedo
SS-282 Tunny 1942
SS-238 Wahoo 1942 : < 2 Dec 43 unknown causes
SS-239 Whale 1942

Balao Class:

  • Displacement: 1526 tons surfaced, 2424 tons submerged
  • Length: 311'
  • Beam: 27'3"
  • Draft: 16'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50 or 1 4"/50 or 1 5"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 80
  • Diesel engines, surfaced/electric motors, submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-308 Apogon 1943
SS-311 Archerfish 1943
SS-309 Aspro 1943
SS-403 Atule 1944
SS-285 Balao 1943
SS-385 Bang 1943
SS-316 Barbel 1944 : 4 Feb 45 air attack, SW of Palawan
SS-317 Barbero 1944
SS-310 Batfish 1943
SS-318 Baya 1944
SS-319 Becuna 1944
SS-320 Bergall 1944
SS-321 Besugo 1944
SS-286 Billfish 1943
SS-322 Blackfin 1944
SS-324 Blenny 1944
SS-325 Blower 1944
SS-326 Blueback 1944
SS-327 Boarfish 1944
SS-287 Bowfin 1943
SS-330 Brill 1944
SS-331 Bugara 1944
SS-332 Bullhead 1944 : 6 Aug 45 air attack, off Bali
SS-333 Bumper 1944
SS-312 Burrfish 1943
SS-334 Cabezon 1944
SS-288 Cabrilla 1943
SS-323 Caiman 1944
SS-289 Capelin 1943 : < 18 Mar 44 unknown causes
SS-336 Capitaine 1945
SS-337 Carbonero 1945
SS-338 Carp 1945
SS-339 Catfish 1945
SS-328 Charr 1944
SS-341 Chivo 1945
SS-342 Chopper 1945
SS-329 Chub 1944
SS-290 Cisco 1943 : < 8 Feb 44 unknown causes
SS-343 Clamagore 1945
SS-344 Cobbler 1945
SS-345 Cochino 1945
SS-346 Corporal 1945
SS-291 Crevalle 1943
SS-347 Cubera 1945
SS-348 Cusk 1946
SS-335 Dentuda 1944
SS-292 Devilfish 1944
SS-350 Dogfish 1945
SS-293 Dragonet 1944
SS-340 Entemedor 1945
SS-294 Escolar 1944 : < 28 Feb 45 unknown causes
SS-361 Golet 1943 : < 23 Oct 44 unknown causes
SS-362 Guavina 1943
SS-363 Guitaro 1944
SS-295 Hackleback 1944
SS-364 Hammerhead 1944
SS-365 Hardhead 1944
SS-366 Hawkbill 1944
SS-367 Icefish 1944
SS-368 Jallao 1944
SS-369 Kete 1944 : Mar 45 by IJN submarine?
SS-370 Kraken 1944
SS-371 Lagarto 1944 : 3 May 45 depth-charged by IJN minelayer Hatsutaka ?
SS-372 Lamprey 1944
SS-296 Lancetfish 1945
SS-297 Ling 1945
SS-298 Lionfish 1944
SS-373 Lizardfish 1944
SS-374 Loggerhead 1945
SS-375 Macabi 1945
SS-299 Manta 1944
SS-376 Mapiro 1945
SS-377 Menhaden 1945
SS-378 Mero 1945
SS-300 Moray 1945
SS-383 Pampanito 1943
SS-384 Parche 1943
SS-313 Perch 1944
SS-382 Picuda 1943
SS-386 Pilotfish 1943
SS-387 Pintado 1944
SS-388 Pipefish 1944
SS-409 Piper 1944
SS-389 Piranha 1944
SS-390 Plaice 1944
SS-391 Pomfret 1944
SS-393 Queenfish 1944
SS-394 Razorback 1944
SS-395 Redfish 1944
SS-301 Roncador 1945
SS-396 Ronquil 1944
SS-302 Sabalo 1945
SS-303 Sablefish 1945
SS-381 Sand Lance 1943
SS-397 Scarbbardfish 1944
SS-399 Sea Cat 1944
SS-400 Sea Devil 1944
SS-401 Sea Dog 1944
SS-402 Sea Fox 1944
SS-405 Sea Owl 1944
SS-406 Sea Poacher 1944
SS-407 Sea Robin 1944
SS-304 Seahorse 1943
SS-315 Sealion 1944
SS-398 Segundo 1944
SS-408 Sennet 1944
SS-314 Shark 1944 : 24 Oct 44 depth charge, between Hainan and Bashi Channel
SS-305 Skate 1943
SS-411 Spadefish 1944
SS-404 Spikefish 1944
SS-413 Spot 1944
SS-414 Springer 1944
SS-392 Sterlet 1944
SS-415 Stickleback 1945
SS-306 Tang 1943 : 25 Oct 44 circular return of own torpedo in the Formosa Channel
SS-410 Threadfin 1944
SS-307 Tilefish 1943
SS-416 Tiru 1945
SS-412 Trepang 1944

Tench Class:

  • Displacement: 1570 tons surfaced, 2414 tons submerged
  • Length: 311'8"
  • Beam: 27'4"
  • Draft: 16'5"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 5"/25, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 81
  • Diesel engines/electric motors
  • FleetSubmarine.Com --comprehensive resource for US submarines in WWII
  • Full Fathom Five: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan
  • U.S. Navy Submarine Centennial
  • Deep Domain from Neal Stevens
  • The Silent Service Connection
  • Ron Martini's Web PagesMany submarine links
  • Subnet: Cyberspace Association of United States Submariners (CAUSS)
  • World War II "Silent-Service"
  • Naval Submarine League
  • U.S. Submarine Veterans Inc.
  • Submarine Veterans of World War II
  • All Submarines on Public Display (worldwide)
  • US Submarines Lost in World War II -- including crew lists

Return to HyperWar: World War II on the World Wide Web Last updated: 25 December 2008

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