Emperor Constantius II

Emperor Constantius II



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Emperor Constantius II - History

Very rarely has the figure of Constantius II (AD 317–361 Caesar 324, Augustus 337) attracted sustained scholarly attention.[1] The causes for this inattention may be discerned in the historiographical tradition established in the latter half of the fourth century, which was almost uniformly hostile to the memory of the longest reigning and most successful of the sons of Constantine the Great. By virtue of his opposition to the traditional cults and his favouring a homoean creed in Christian worship, Constantius II has long been condemned to oblivion.[2] Rooted in a close reading of the literary sources and drawing upon recent epigraphic discoveries and numismatic evidence, the monograph of Muriel Moser constitutes a welcome addition to the growing body of recent scholarship dealing with this important figure in the transition of Late Antiquity.[3] Proclaimed Caesar on the same day that his father re-founded Byzantium as Constantinople (8 November 324), Constantius II stands at the cusp of the Middle Ages, the creator of more than one institution that was to endure for over a millennium.

In seven dense chapters, Moser reviews the prosopographical evidence for the involvement of senators in the administration of the Roman empire in the East between Constantine’s final victory over Licinius in late AD 324 and the death of Constantius II late in AD 361. With the two chapters of Part I (“A Unified Roman Empire (AD 312–337)”, pp. 11–82), Moser argues for the restored unity of the Empire after Constantine’s victory over Licinius in AD 324 and illustrates the reliance of Constantine upon local elites serving in the imperial administration as viri perfectissimi. With the next two chapters, which constitute Part II (“Ruling the East (AD 337-350)”, pp. 83–168), Moser argues for continuity under the sons of Constantine, notwithstanding their differences over dogma and such contentious figures as Athanasius of Alexandria. With the final three chapters of Part III (“Ruler of Rome and Constantinople (AD 350–361)”, pp. 169–312), Moser illustrates the process whereby Constantius II established the Senate of Constantinople and accorded it equal status with that of Rome.

This monograph calls into question a number of ideas (e.g. the creation of a Senate of Constantinople by Constantine and Constantius II’s reliance upon that Senate) that are standard in the modern scholarship. She establishes the reliance of Constantine and Constantius II upon members of the Senate of Rome for the government of the area stretching from Thrace through Anatolia and Syria to Egypt in AD 324–361. She likewise demonstrates persuasively that there was no Senate of Constantinople until Constantius II called it into being, an event that is suggestively linked to the struggle against Magnentius in the civil war of AD 350–353 (p. 217). Indeed, she illustrates how senators from western provinces were limited to administrative positions in the West and eastern senators to the East after the conclusion of that conflict in AD 353. What emerges is something akin to witnessing the mitosis of a cellular organism. The resolution of tensions between Old Rome and New Rome is accordingly revealed to have been one of the chief aims of the visit of Constantius II to Rome on the twentieth anniversary of his father’s death, an anniversary which seems to have been treated as though it marked the completion of twenty years of rule as an emperor with full powers (Augustus).

One of the virtues of this admirable treatment of technically complicated and seemingly unrewarding material is the detailed attention that Moser brings to the literary, numismatic, epigraphic, and legal evidence in her attempt to reconstruct individual careers and imperial policies. Attentive to the nuances of language, she brilliantly corrects standard translations of the term diasēmotatos, which was used by Eusebius of Caesarea (V. Const. 4.1.1-2) to indicate that Constantine co-opted large numbers of the civic elite of the East as viri perfectissimi (pp. 48–51). Alert to the contribution that coins may make, she buttresses this philological argument by the citation of a gold medallion with the obverse legend EQVIS (sic) ROMANVS, which was struck at Nicomedia in AD 325–326 and valued at 1.5 solidi (p. 51, fig. 2.1). Drawing upon an unpublished inscription on the base of a statue set up to commemorate the praetorian prefect Flavius Philippus in the city of Perge (thanks to the generous permission of Dennis Feissel), she establishes that the members of the Senate of Constantinople were addressed as “conscript fathers” by late AD 351 or early AD 352, and that this praetorian prefect established his residence at Constantinople as part of the war effort against Magnentius (pp. 189–196). Utilising yet other epigraphic evidence, she makes a strong case that Philippus survived imprisonment by Magnentius only to die in disgrace as one of the victims of the treason trials that followed the definitive victory of Constantius II (pp. 197–207). In like fashion, Moser deploys to good advantage legal texts such as a letter of Constantius II addressed to the Senate of Constantinople from Sirmium on 22 May AD 359 (CTh 6.1.15, trans. Project Volterra), which illustrates the procedural complications that accompanied the formation of a new senate in the East that was to all purposes the twin of its peer in the West.


Chapter 2. Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia, and his Party, by again endeavoring to introduce the ArianHeresy, create Disturbances in the Churches.

After the death of the Emperor Constantine, Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia, and Theognis of Nicæa, imagining that a favorable opportunity had arisen, used their utmost efforts to expunge the doctrine of homoousion, and to introduce Arianism in its place. They, nevertheless, despaired of effecting this, if Athanasius should return to Alexandria: in order therefore to accomplish their designs, they sought the assistance of that presbyter by whose means Arius had been recalled from exile a little before. How this was done shall now be described. The presbyter in question presented the will and the request of the deceased king to his son Constantius who finding those dispositions in it which he was most desirous of, for the empire of the East was by his father's will apportioned to him, treated the presbyter with great consideration, loaded him with favors, and ordered that free access should be given him both to the palace and to himself. This license soon obtained for him familiar intercourse with the empress, as well as with her eunuchs. There was at that time a chief eunuch of the imperial bed-chamber named Eusebius him the presbyter persuaded to adopt Arian's views, after which the rest of the eunuchs were also prevailed on to adopt the same sentiments. Not only this but the empress also, under the influence of the eunuchs and the presbyters, became favorable to the tenets of Arius and not long after the subject was introduced to the emperor himself. Thus it became gradually diffused throughout the court, and among the officers of the imperial household and guards, until at length it spread itself over the whole population of the city. The chamberlains in the palace discussed this doctrine with the women and in the family of every citizen there was a logical contest. Moreover, the mischief quickly extended to other provinces and cities, the controversy, like a spark, insignificant at first, exciting in the auditors a spirit of contention: for every one who inquired the cause of the tumult, found immediately occasion for disputing, and determined to take part in the strife at the moment of making the inquiry. By general altercation of this kind all order was subverted the agitation, however, was confined to the cities of the East, those of Illyricum and the western parts of the empire meanwhile were perfectly tranquil, because they would not annul the decisions of the Council of Nicæa. As this affair increased, going from bad to worse, Eusebius of Nicomedia and his party looked upon popular ferment as a piece of good fortune. For only thus they thought they would be enabled to constitute some one who held their own sentiments bishop of Alexandria. But the return of Athanasius at that time defeated their purpose for he came there fortified by a letter from one of the Augusti, which the younger Constantine, who bore his father's name, addressed to the people of Alexandria, from Treves, a city in Gaul. A copy of this epistle is here subjoined.


Coins for this issuer were issued from 323 until 361.

Flavius Julius Constantius was the second son of Constantine and Fausta, born in 317. He was given the rank of Caesar soon after the defeat of Licinius, and when the empire was divided after Constantine’s death he received the eastern territories.

After the death of Constans in 350, Constantius II marched against the usurper Magnentius he finally defeated him in 353 and spent the next years on the Danube border. In 359 he went to fight Persia, but received news that Julian had been proclaimed Augustus in Paris. Constantius II tried to march back and face him in battle, but died of fever on the way in Mopsucrene in 361.

Latest examples recorded with images

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Record: GLO-F4E65A
Object type: COIN
Broadperiod: ROMAN
Description: Silver siliqua of Constantius II dated to &hellip
Workflow: Awaiting validation

Record: LVPL-77F536
Object type: COIN
Broadperiod: ROMAN
Description: An incomplete copper alloy Roman numm&hellip
Workflow: Awaiting validation

Record: BERK-CBDCD2
Object type: COIN
Broadperiod: ROMAN
Description: Copper alloy AE2 nummus of Const&hellip
Workflow: Awaiting validation

Record: PUBLIC-275DA0
Object type: COIN
Broadperiod: ROMAN
Description: A copper alloy Roman coin: possibly a cont&hellip
Workflow: Published

Other resources about Constantius II

View all coins recorded by the scheme attributed to Constantius II.

Information from Wikipedia

  • Preferred label: Constantius II
  • Full names:
    • Constantius II
    • Father: Constantine the Great
    • Mother: Fausta
    • Consul of the Roman Empire
    • List of Roman emperors
    • Lucius Aradius Valerius Proculus
    • Flavius Constantius
    • Censorius Datianus
    • Arbitio
    • Florentius (consul 361)
    • Marcus Maecius Memmius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus
    • Septimius Acindynus
    • Vulcacius Rufinus
    • Taurus (consul 361)
    • Eusebius (consul 347)
    • Valerius Maximus (consul 327)
    • Lollianus Mavortius
    • Neratius Cerealis
    • Flavius Romulus
    • Arbitio
    • Julius Julianus
    • Ursus
    • Sextus Anicius Faustus Paulinus (consul 325)
    • Petronius Probinus (consul 341)
    • Antonius Marcellinus
    • Gaiso
    • Eusebius (consul 359)
    • Polemius
    • Magnentius
    • Hypatius (consul 359)
    • Marcus Nummius Albinus
    • Lollianus Mavortius
    • Amantius

    Denominations issued

    Issuing mints

    • Alexandria, Egypt
    • Ambianum
    • Antioch (Antakya, Turkey)
    • Aquileia
    • Arelatum
    • Constantinople
    • Cyzicus
    • Perinthus/Heraclea
    • Londinium
    • Lugdunum
    • Mediolanum
    • Nicomedia
    • Rome
    • Sirmium
    • Siscia
    • Thessalonica
    • Ticinum
    • Trier

    This video has been embedded from Adrian Murdoch's series of podcasts on the Emperors of Rome. Many thanks to him for allowing us to use these podcasts.

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    Emperor Constantius II - History

    Today is the 1,696th birthday of the Roman emperor Constantius II. One of the sons of Constantine the Great, Constantius was the longest lived and arguably the most politically successful of Constantine's heirs. He was, however, a man of conflicts--rigorous, temperate, suspicious and cruel all at the same time. As a supporter of Arianism, he caused tumult within the Catholic Church and his reign ended abruptly when he died of sickness while on the way to grapple with his usurping nephew. His death in AD 361 left the Roman Empire in the hands of the last pagan emperor, Julian the Apostate.

    Here is an excerpt of how the 4th century historian Ammianus Marcellinus eulogized him:

    Always preserving the dignity of the imperial authority, Constantius proudly and magnanimously disdained popularity. In conferring the higher dignities he was very sparing, and allowed very few changes to be made in the administration of the finances. Nor did he ever encourage the arrogance of the soldiers. Nor under him was any general promoted to the title of most illustrious.

    In taking care of the soldiers he was very cautious: an examiner into their merits, sometimes over-scrupulous, giving dignities about the palace as if with scales. Under him no one who was not well known to him, or who was favored merely by some sudden impulse, ever received any high appointment in the palace. But only such as had served ten years in some capacity or other could look for such appointments as master of the ceremonies or treasurer.

    He was a diligent cultivator of learning, but, as his blunted talent was not suited to rhetoric, he devoted himself to versification in which, however, he did nothing worth speaking of. In his way of life he was economical and temperate, and by moderation in eating and drinking he preserved such robust health that he was rarely ill, though when ill dangerously so.

    He was contented with very little sleep, which he took when time and season allowed and throughout his long life he was so extremely chaste that no suspicion was ever cast on him in this respect, though it is a charge which, even when it can find no ground, malignity is apt to fasten on princes.

    In riding and throwing the javelin, in shooting with the bow, and in all the accomplishments of military exercises, he was admirably skilful. That he never blew his nose in public, never spat, never was seen to change countenance, and that he never in all his life ate any fruit I pass over, as what has been often related before.

    Having now briefly enumerated his good qualities with which we have been able to become acquainted, let us now proceed to speak of his vices. In other respects he was equal to average princes, but if he had the slightest reason (even if founded on wholly false information) for suspecting any one of aiming at supreme power, he would at once institute the most rigorous inquiry, trampling down right and wrong alike, and outdo the cruelty of Caligula, Domitian, or Commodus, whose barbarity he rivaled at the very beginning of his reign, when he shamefully put to death his own connections and relations

    And his cruelty and morose suspicions, which were directed against everything of the kind, were a cruel addition to the sufferings of the unhappy persons who were accused of sedition or treason.

    In such cases he had a mortal hatred of justice, even though his great object was to be accounted just and merciful: and as sparks flying from a dry wood, by a mere breath of wind are sometimes carried on with unrestrained course to the danger of the country villages around, so he also from the most trivial causes kindled heaps of evils. And, as some right-thinking people are of opinion, it was rather an indication of great virtue in Constantius to have quelled the empire without shedding more blood, than to have revenged himself with such cruelty.

    But as in his foreign wars this emperor was unsuccessful and unfortunate, on the other hand in his civil contests he was successful and in all those domestic calamities he covered himself with the horrid blood of the enemies of the republic and of himself and yielding to his elation at these triumphs in a way neither right nor usual, he erected at a vast expense triumphal arches in Gaul and the two Pannonias, to record his triumphs over his own provinces engraving on them the titles of his exploits . as long as they should last, to those who read the inscriptions.

    He was preposterously addicted to listening to his wives, and to the thin voices of his eunuchs, and some of his courtiers, who applauded all his words, and watched everything he said, whether in approval or disapproval, in order to agree with it.

    The misery of these times was further increased by the insatiable covetousness of his tax-collectors, who brought him more odium than money and to many persons this seemed the more intolerable, because he never listened to any excuse, never took any measures for relief of the provinces when oppressed by the multiplicity of taxes and imposts and in addition to all this he was very apt to take back any exemptions which he had granted.

    He confused the Christian religion, which is plain and simple, with old women's superstitions in investigating which he preferred perplexing himself to settling its questions with dignity, so that he excited much dissension which he further encouraged by diffuse wordy explanations: he ruined the establishment of public conveyances by devoting them to the service of crowds of priests, who went to and fro to different synods, as they call the meetings at which they endeavor to settle everything according to their own fancy.

    As to his personal appearance and stature, he was of a dark complexion with prominent eyes of keen sight, soft hair, with his cheeks carefully shaved, and bright looking. From his waist to his neck he was rather long, his legs were very short and crooked, which made him a good leaper and runner.


    Western Roman Empire / Emperors Constantine the Great, Constantine II and Constantius II

    Constantine the Great (Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD.

    Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman army officer, and his consort Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD, Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against the emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD.

    Constantine is a significant figure in the history of Christianity. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on his orders at the purported site of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem, became the holiest place in Christendom. The Papal claim to temporal power in the High Middle Ages was based on the supposed Donation of Constantine. He is venerated as a saint by Eastern Orthodox, Byzantine Catholics, and Anglicans.

    Between 19 September 324 and 22 May 337, Constantine the Great was emperor of the whole Roman empire (West and East). After 1 March 317, his son Constantine II was Caesar (junior ruler) under him. After 13 November 324, his son Constantius II was also Caesar (junior ruler) under him.


    St. Helena, Mother of Emperor Constantine – May 21

    St. Helena, Mother of Emperor Constantine

    St. Helena, (Flavia Iulia Helena) the mother of St. Constantine the Great, was probably born at Drepanum (later named as Helenopolis, by her Emperor son) in Asia Minor to Greek/Turkish, Christian parents of humble, low social means. Some tradition says she was born in the city of Raha (Edessa). They brought her up in a Christian manner, taught her the doctrines of the Church and the religious ethics. She was incredibly beautiful. When Emperor Constantius I (Chlorus), emperor of Byzantium, came to the city and heard about her. Constantius saw her as his soulmate sent by God. It is said that upon meeting they were wearing identical silver bracelets. He sought her out and married her. She gave birth to Constantine (the great), in AD 274 who became the first Christian Emperor. She raised him up well, and taught him philosophy, wisdom, and knighthood.

    Constantius divorced Helena, in AD 294, for political reasons and married the daughter of a co-emperor, in order to obtain a wife more consonant with his rising status. However, Helena and Constantine were maintained in a regal home, and Constantine stayed close to both his mother and father. Constantine eventually became co-emperor, and when he died, Constantine took his father’s place. He brought his mother Helena to come live with him and his own family in the royal court. Helena must have been a prominent person at the imperial court. Constantine showed his mother great honor and respect, granting her the imperial title ‘Augusta’.

    Till the time of Constantine, the great, many of the Roman Emperors and co-emperors had viciously persecuted Christians, and yet the Word of the True God continued to spread throughout the Empire. But what we do know is that she raised her son Constantine to not only accept Christianity and defend it against those who would try to destroy the faith, and that when he became sole emperor, he did declare it to be the official faith of the Roman Empire, through the issued the Edict of Milan in 313 which guaranteed religious tolerance for Christians and he even participated in early Church Councils. After three hundred years of persecution, Christians could finally practice their faith without fear.

    Surely some of that came from her influence. And Helena was not only a devoted Christian, but she was driven to do more for the faith, to devote herself to Jesus Christ, and actually work for Christianity, and serve the Church by, taking advantage of her position so that even though she was in her seventies, she set out on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and was led by God to find the places where Jesus was born, where he lived, where he preached, where he was crucified, and where He resurrected from the tomb. She searched for the wood of the Honourable Cross until she found it along with the other two crosses and not far from it, she found a board with the inscription (INRI) ordered by Pilate, and four nails which had pierced the Lord’s Body.

    While in Jerusalem, St. Helen performed a variety of good works, including giving money to the poor. St. Helen continued to journey to the holy places connected with the earthly life of the Savior, building more than eighty Churches – at Bethlehem at the birthplace of Christ on the Mount of Olives where the Lord ascended to Heaven and at Gethsemane where the Savior prayed before His sufferings and where the Mother of God was buried, before her Assumption to heaven.

    King Constantine had funded the immense expedition with his mother Helena leading an entourage of soldiers, priests, bishops, architects, scholars, and advisors. For two years Empress Helena explored the Holy Land, talking with elders about local traditions, studying, and going to where God led her. Some ancient sources credit her with the construction of hundreds of Churches, some marking events in the life of Jesus, other churches marking places of martyrdoms of Christian saints.

    St. Helena led a righteous life, and she contributed many endowments for the Churches, monasteries, and the poor. She departed at age of eighty. May her prayers be with us. Amen


    Contemporary history background

    The Roman Empire went through a profound change at the beginning of the 4th century. Julius Constantius' half-brother Constantine the Great prevailed in the succession struggles that broke out with the end of the tetrarchy founded by Emperor Diocletian , and thus founded the Constantinian dynasty , to which his younger brother Julius Constantius and his sons Constantius Gallus and Julian belonged.

    Constantine's reign was significant for two main reasons: On the one hand, he relocated the central power with the new capital, Constantinople, to the eastern part of the empire, which had already become more and more important. The decision for the new capital was not least due to foreign policy considerations, because Constantinople was about the same distance from the threatened borders of the empire on the Danube and Euphrates . On the other hand, Constantine promoted Christianity and thus initiated the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Even if the traditional gods were not abolished, they lost their power and influence. Julius Constantius' son Julian later tried unsuccessfully to stop this development.

    Julius Constantius was born after 289 as the son of Emperor Constantius I and his wife Theodora , the stepdaughter of Emperor Maximian . Dalmatius and Hannibalianus were his brothers, Constantia , Anastasia and Eutropia his sisters. Emperor Constantine the Great came from his father's connection with Helena and was thus his half-brother. Despite this illustrious relationship, Julius Constantius was never himself emperor or co-emperor, although Constantine bestowed him the titles of patricius and nobilissimus .

    Julius Constantius was married twice. With his first wife Galla , the sister of the later consuls Vulcacius Rufinus and Naeratius Cerealis , he had two sons and a daughter. His eldest son, whose name has not been passed down, was murdered with his father in 337. His second son was Constantius Gallus, who rose to Caesar under Constantius II . His daughter was Constantius' first wife.

    After the death of his first wife, Julius married Constantius Basilina , daughter of the Egyptian Praetorian prefect Iulius Iulianus . This gave him another son, the future emperor Julian . She died before her husband around 332/33. Nothing is known of any other marriages of Julius Constantius. Since the sources about him are rather poor, further marriages cannot be ruled out.

    Allegedly at the instigation of his stepmother Helena, Julius Constantius did not initially live at the court of his half-brother, but together with Dalmatius and Hannibalianus in Tolosa , in Etruria , where his son Gallus was born, and in Corinth . In the end he was called to Constantinople and was able to develop a good relationship with Emperor Constantine there.

    In 335 Julius Constantius was consul with Ceionius Rufius Albinus . As early as 337 he and his eldest son fell victim to the wave of purges that followed the death of his half-brother . His property was also confiscated, but his two younger sons survived since they were still children in 337 and later rose to become co-emperor or emperor.


    Information about Emperor Constantius II of the Roman Empire

    Constantius II (Latin: Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death.

    In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire.

    His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results.

    In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar.

    However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.


    Imperial Invectives against Constantius II: Athanasius of Alexandria, History of the Arians, Hilary of Poitiers, Against Constantius and Lucifer of Cagliari, The Necessity of Dying for the Son of God

    The Roman emperor Constantius II (337-361) has frequently been maligned as a heretic, standing in sharp contrast to his father Constantine I, who set in motion the Christianisation of the Roman world and the establishment of Nicene orthodoxy. This reputation is the result of the overwhelmingly negative presentation of Constantius in the surviving literature written by orthodox .

    The Roman emperor Constantius II (337-361) has frequently been maligned as a heretic, standing in sharp contrast to his father Constantine I, who set in motion the Christianisation of the Roman world and the establishment of Nicene orthodoxy. This reputation is the result of the overwhelmingly negative presentation of Constantius in the surviving literature written by orthodox Christians, who regarded him as an `Arian' persecutor. This volume presents new translations of texts that were central to the shaping of this hostile legacy: Athanasius of Alexandria's History of the Arians, Hilary of Poitiers' Against Constantius and Lucifer of Cagliari's The Necessity of Dying for the Son of God. These contemporary invectives against the emperor were composed by three bishops who all opposed Constantius' religious policies and were exiled by the imperial and ecclesiastical authorities during the 350s. By constructing polemical accounts of their sufferings at the hands of the emperor and his supporters, these authors drew on the traditions of both classical rhetoric and Christian persecution literature in order to cast Constantius as imitating villains such as Ahab, Judas and Nero, while presenting themselves as fearless opponents of impious tyranny. Moreover, as the earliest surviving invectives against a living Roman emperor, the writings of these three bishops offer a unique opportunity to understand the place of polemical literature in the political culture of the later Roman empire. The translations are accompanied by a substantial introduction and notes which provide a clear guide to the historical and theological context of the period, as well as literary analysis of the texts themselves. This volume will therefore be valuable both to those studying the religious and political history of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages and also to anyone interested in the development of Roman rhetoric and early Christian literature.


    Watch the video: Constantine II: War Between Brothers