Foundation Figurine of a Kneeling God

Foundation Figurine of a Kneeling God

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Mississippian stone statuary

The Mississippian stone statuary are artifacts of polished stone in the shape of human figurines made by members of the Mississippian culture (800 to 1600 CE) and found in archaeological sites in the American Midwest and Southeast. [1] Two distinct styles exist the first is a style of carved flint clay found over a wide geographical area but believed to be from the American Bottom area and manufactured at the Cahokia site specifically the second is a variety of carved and polished locally available stone primarily found in the Tennessee-Cumberland region and northern Georgia (although there are lone outliers of this style in other regions). Early European explorers reported seeing stone and wooden statues in native temples, but the first documented modern discovery was made in 1790 in Kentucky, and given as a gift to Thomas Jefferson. [1]

An Appeal to Heaven Flag

During the early days of the War for Independence—while the gun smoke still covered the fields at Lexington and Concord, and the cannons still echoed at Bunker Hill—America faced innumerable difficulties and a host of hard decisions. Unsurprisingly, the choice of a national flag remained unanswered for many months due to more pressing issues such as arranging a defense and forming the government.

However, a flag was still needed by the military in order to differentiate the newly forged American forces from those of the oncoming British. Several temporary flags were swiftly employed in order to satisfy the want. One of the most famous and widespread standards rushed up flagpoles on both land and sea was the “Pinetree Flag,” or sometimes called “An Appeal to Heaven” flag.

As the name suggests, this flag was characterized by having both a tree (most commonly thought to be a pine or a cypress) and the motto reading “an appeal to Heaven.” Typically, these were displayed on a white field, and often were used by troops, especially in New England, as the liberty tree was a prominent northern symbol for the independence movement.[i]

In fact, prior to the Declaration of Independence but after the opening of hostilities, the Pinetree Flag was one of the most popular flags for American troops. Indeed, “there are recorded in the history of those days many instances of the use of the pine-tree flag between October, 1775, and July, 1776.”[ii]

Some of America’s earliest battles and victories were fought under a banner declaring “an appeal to Heaven.” Some historians document that General Israel Putnam’s troops at Bunker Hill used a flag with the motto on it, and during the Battle of Boston the floating batteries (floating barges armed with artillery) proudly flew the famous white Pinetree Flag.[iii] In January of 1776, Commodore Samuel Tucker flew the flag while successfully capturing a British troop transport which was attempting to relieve the besieged British forces in Boston.[iv]

The Pinetree Flag was commonly used by the Colonial Navy during this period of the War. When George Washington commissioned the first-ever officially sanctioned military ships for America in 1775, Colonel Joseph Reed wrote the captains asking them to:

Please to fix upon some particular color for a flag, and a signal by which our vessels may know one another. What do you think of a flag with a white ground, a tree in the middle, the motto ‘Appeal to Heaven’? This is the flag of our floating batteries.[v]

In the following months news spread even to England that the Americans were employing this flag on their naval vessels. A report of a captured ship revealed that, “the flag taken from a provincial [American] privateer is now deposited in the admiralty the field is a white bunting, with a spreading green tree the motto, ‘Appeal to Heaven.’”[vi]

As the skirmishes unfolded into all out warfare between the colonists and England, the Pinetree Flag with its prayer to God became synonymous with the American struggle for liberty. An early map of Boston reflected this by showing a side image of a British redcoat trying to rip this flag out of the hands of a colonist (see image on right).[vii] The main motto, “An Appeal to Heaven,” inspired other similar flags with mottos such as “An Appeal to God,” which also often appeared on early American flags.

For many modern Americans it might be surprising to learn that one of the first national mottos and flags was “an appeal to Heaven.” Where did this phrase originate, and why did the Americans identify themselves with it?

To understand the meaning behind the Pinetree Flag we must go back to John Locke’s influential Second Treatise of Government (1690). In this book, the famed philosopher explains that when a government becomes so oppressive and tyrannical that there no longer remains any legal remedy for citizens, they can appeal to Heaven and then resist that tyrannical government through a revolution. Locke turned to the Bible to explain his argument:

To avoid this state of war (wherein there is no appeal but to Heaven, and wherein every the least difference is apt to end, where there is no authority to decide between the contenders) is one great reason of men’s putting themselves into society and quitting [leaving] the state of nature, for where there is an authority—a power on earth—from which relief can be had by appeal, there the continuance of the state of war is excluded and the controversy is decided by that power. Had there been any such court—any superior jurisdiction on earth—to determine the right between Jephthah and the Ammonites, they had never come to a state of war, but we see he was forced to appeal to Heaven. The Lord the Judge (says he) he judge this day between the children of Israel and the children of Ammon, Judg. xi. 27.[viii]

Locke affirms that when societies are formed and systems and methods of mediation can be instituted, armed conflict to settle disputes is a last resort. When there no longer remains any higher earthly authority to which two contending parties (such as sovereign nations) can appeal, the only option remaining is to declare war in assertion of certain rights. This is what Locke calls an appeal to Heaven because, as in the case of Jephthah and the Ammonites, it is God in Heaven Who ultimately decides who the victors will be.

Locke goes on to explain that when the people of a country “have no appeal on earth, then they have a liberty to appeal to Heaven whenever they judge the cause of sufficient moment [importance].”[ix] However, Locke cautions that appeals to Heaven through open war must be seriously and somberly considered beforehand since God is perfectly just and will punish those who take up arms in an unjust cause. The English statesman writes that:

he that appeals to Heaven must be sure he has right on his side and a right to that is worth the trouble and cost of the appeal as he will answer at a tribunal that cannot be deceived [God’s throne] and will be sure to retribute to everyone according to the mischiefs he hath created to his fellow subjects that is, any part of mankind.[x]

The fact that Locke writes extensively concerning the right to a just revolution as an appeal to Heaven becomes massively important to the American colonists as England begins to strip away their rights. The influence of his Second Treatise of Government (which contains his explanation of an appeal to Heaven) on early America is well documented. During the 1760s and 1770s, the Founding Fathers quoted Locke more than any other political author, amounting to a total of 11% and 7% respectively of all total citations during those formative decades.[xi] Indeed, signer of the Declaration of Independence Richard Henry Lee once quipped that the Declaration had been largely“copied from Locke’s Treatise on Government.”[xii]

Therefore, when the time came to separate from Great Britain and the regime of King George III, the leaders and citizens of America well understood what they were called upon to do. By entering into war with their mother country, which was one of the leading global powers at the time, the colonists understood that only by appealing to Heaven could they hope to succeed.

For example, Patrick Henry closes his infamous “give me liberty” speech by declaring that:

If we wish to be free—if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending—if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon—we must fight!—I repeat it, sir, we must fight!! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts, is all that is left us![xiii]

Furthermore, Jonathan Trumbull, who as governor of Connecticut was the only royal governor to retain his position after the Declaration, explained that the Revolution began only after repeated entreaties to the King and Parliament were rebuffed and ignored. In writing to a foreign leader, Trumbull clarified that:

On the 19 th day of April, 1775, the scene of blood was opened by the British troops, by the unprovoked slaughter of the Provincial troops at Lexington and Concord. The adjacent Colonies took up arms in their own defense and the Congress again met, again petitioned the Throne [the English king] for peace and settlement and again their petitions were contemptuously disregarded. When every glimpse of hope failed not only of justice but of safety, we were compelled, by the last necessity, to appeal to Heaven and rest the defense of our liberties and privileges upon the favor and protection of Divine Providence and the resistance we could make by opposing force to force.[xiv]

John Locke’s explanation of the right to just revolution permeated American political discourse and influenced the direction the young country took when finally being forced to appeal to Heaven in order to reclaim their unalienable rights. The church pulpits likewise thundered with further Biblical exegesis on the importance of appealing to God for an ultimate redress of grievances, and pastors for decades after the War continued to teach on the subject. For example, an 1808 sermon explained:

War has been called an appeal to Heaven. And when we can, with full confidence, make the appeal, like David, and ask to be prospered according to our righteousness, and the cleanness of our hands, what strength and animation it gives us! When the illustrious Washington, at an early stage of our revolutionary contest, committed the cause in that solemn manner. “May that God whom you have invoked, judge between us and you,” how our hearts glowed that we had such a cause to commit![xv]

Thus, when the early militiamen and naval officers flew the Pinetree Flag emblazoned with its motto “An Appeal for Heaven,” it was not some random act with little significance or meaning. Instead, they sought to march into battle with a recognition of God’s Providence and their reliance on the King of Kings to right the wrongs which they had suffered. The Pinetree Flag represents a vital part of America’s history and an important step on the journey to reaching a national flag during the early days of the War for Independence.

Furthermore, the Pinetree Flag was far from being the only national symbol recognizing America’s reliance on the protection and Providence of God. During the War for Independence other mottos and rallying cries included similar sentiments. For example, the flag pictured on the right bore the phrase “Resistance to Tyrants is Obedience to God,” which came from an earlier 1750 sermon by the influential Rev. Jonathan Mayhew. [xvi] In 1776 Benjamin Franklin even suggested that this phrase be part of the nation’s Great Seal.[xvii] The Americans’ thinking and philosophy was so grounded on a Biblical perspective that even a British parliamentary report in 1774 acknowledged that, “If you ask an American, ‘Who is his master?’ He will tell you he has none—nor any governor but Jesus Christ.” [xviii]

This God-centered focus continued throughout our history after the Revolutionary War. For example, in the War of 1812 against Britain, during the Defense of Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key penned what would become our National Anthem, encapsulating this perspective by writing that:

Blest with vict’ry and peace may the heav’n rescued land

Praise the power that hath made and preserv’d us a nation!

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,

And this be our motto: “In God is our trust.”[xix]

In the Civil War, Union Forces sang this song when marching into battle. In fact, Abraham Lincoln was inspired to put “In God we Trust” on coins, which was one of his last official acts before his untimely death.[xx] And after World War II, President Eisenhower led Congress in making “In God We Trust” the official National Motto,[xxi] also adding “under God” to the pledge in 1954.[xxii]

Throughout the centuries America has continually and repeatedly acknowledged the need to look to God and appeal to Heaven. This was certainly evident in the earliest days of the War for Independence with the Pinetree Flag and its powerful inscription: “An Appeal to Heaven.”

[i] “Flag, The,” Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States, ed. John Lalor (Chicago: Melbert B. Cary & Company, 1883), 2.232, here.

[ii] Report of the Proceedings of the Society of the Army of the Tennessee at the Thirtieth Meeting, Held at Toledo, Ohio, October 26-17, 1898 (Cincinnati: F. W. Freeman, 1899), 80, here.

[iii] Schuyler Hamilton, Our National Flag The Stars and Stripes Its History in a Century (New York: George R. Lockwood, 1877), 16-17, here

[iv] Report of the Proceedings of the Society of the Army of the Tennessee at the Thirtieth Meeting, Held at Toledo, Ohio, October 26-17, 1898 (Cincinnati: F. W. Freeman, 1899), 80, here.

[v] Richard Frothingham, History of the Siege of Boston, and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Buner Hill (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1849), 261, here.

[vi] Richard Frothingham, History of the Siege of Boston, and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Buner Hill (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1849), 262, here.

[vii] Richard Frothingham, History of the Siege of Boston, and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Buner Hill (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1849), 262, here.

[viii] John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (London: A. Millar, et al., 1794), 211, here.

[ix] John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (London: A. Millar, et al., 1794), 346-347, here

[x] John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (London: A. Millar, et al., 1794), 354-355, here.

[xi] Donald Lutz, The Origins of American Constitutionalism (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1988), 143.

[xii] Thomas Jefferson, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Andrew A. Lipscomb, editor (Washington, D.C.: The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904), Vol. XV, p. 462, to James Madison on August 30, 1823.

[xiii] William Wirt, The Life of Patrick Henry (New York: McElrath & Bangs, 1831), 140, here

[xiv] Jonathan Trumbull quoted in James Longacre, The National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans (Philadelphia: James B. Longacre, 1839), 4.5, here.

[xv] The Question of War with Great Britain, Examined upon Moral and Christian Principles (Boston: Snelling and Simons, 1808), 13, here.

[xvi] Jonathan Mayhew, A Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-Resistance to the Higher Powers (Boston: D. Fowle, 1750) [Evans # 6549] see also, John Adams, Letters of John Adams, Addressed to His Wife, ed. Charles Francis Adams (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1841), 1:152, to Abigail Adams on August 14, 1776.

[xvii] “Benjamin Franklin’s Great Seal Design,” The Great Seal (accessed September 2, 2020), here.

[xviii] Hezekiah Niles, Principles and Acts of the Revolution in America (Baltimore: William Ogden Niles, 1822), 198.

[xix] Francis Scott Key, “The Defence of Fort M’Henry,” The Analectic Magazine (Philadelphia: Moses Thomas, 1814) 4.433-444.

[xx] B. F. Morris, Memorial Record of the Nation’s Tribute to Abraham Lincoln (Washington, DC: W. H. & O. H. Morrison, 1866), 216, here.

[xxi] D. Jason Berggan, “In God We Trust,” The First Amendment Encyclopedia (2017), here.

[xxii] Rachel Siegel, “The Gripping Sermon that Got ‘Under God’ Added to the Pledge of Allegiance on Flag Day,” The Washington Post (June 14, 2018), here.

Foundation Figurine of a Kneeling God - History

Glenna Goodacre, sculptor of the Vietnam Women's Memorial, is internationally renowned for her work in bronze. She has won numerous awards and honors for her work and is one of a small number of independent artists to have her artwork minted on a U.S. circulated coin (the gold-colored Sacagawea dollar coin issued in 2000).

George Dickie, AIA ASLA, the landscape architect of the Vietnam Women&rsquos Memorial, is a professor of architecture at Penn State University.

I n researching the design records of the Wall, a defined site boundary of the Wall “site” could not be found. The competition guidelines had prescribed an approximately two-acre area within which the Wall could be located.

E stablishing this area was the first task. Further on-site investigations determined that the space surrounding the Wall that could be defined as the “genus loci” of the Wall was in fact closer to six acres in size. Six sites were examined as suitable for the Vietnam Women’s Memorial, each adjacent to but outside the area of context of the Wall. Important in the site selection were three additional factors: (1) that the new Memorial would be set in a location from which the wall could be seen (2) that there would be easy access to the new site and (3) that the placement would relate to the design of the park and complement the original design concept of Constitution Gardens.

T he design concept builds upon the criteria used in the site selection process, in addition to the realization that the Memorials are experiencing far greater number of visitors than had been previously anticipated.

T he sculpture by Glenna Goodacre is the single most important force in the design of the landscape setting. The composition of the sculpture involves the viewer in a series of successive views. The visitor is drawn by the composition to move around the sculpture and to determine a personal perception of the composition from many different points. This need to involve the viewer in a kinetic relationship to the statue led to the design of a terrace that, while being functionally adequate for viewing, would also provide space for seating.

T he material used for the paving is a Carnelaian red granite from Minnesota. The terrace is approached from the main walkway leading to the Wall and the statue of three fighting men. A single entrance leads to the sculpture and gives visitors views of the Wall as they exit.

T he rectangular shape of the terrace and the indents for seating and viewing create a counterpoint to the movement of the visitor and to the circle of trees that form the space within the park. The trees provide transparent walls to the terrace and will give shade and comfort in the summer. The trees selected, Yellowood, have a delicate branching form the leaves are light green in summer and a subtle yellow in fall. Other plant materials are Viburnum and Shadblow. The ground cover surrounding the terrace is an evergreen variety of Cotoncaster.

Why Black Women Are Protesting A Statue Of This Famed Gynecologist

The history of reproductive health care in the U.S. is fraught with racism, as white women’s reproductive health care access came at the cost of black and brown women’s lives. Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, was a known eugenicist the earliest forms of birth control were tested on Puerto Rican women, and black slaves were routinely purchased or rented by medical professionals to be tested on.

Now, a group of black women is calling for the removal of a statue in New York City that represents this dark history.

The Black Youth Project 100, an activist group founded in 2013, staged a protest against the statue of J. Marion Sims outside the New York Academy of Medicine on August 19. They photographed their protest in a now-viral Facebook post in which they explain the reason they are calling for the statue’s removal.

“J. Marion Sims was a gynecologist in the 1800s who purchased Black women slaves and used them as guinea pigs for his untested surgical experiments,” they wrote. “He repeatedly performed genital surgery on Black women WITHOUT ANESTHESIA because according to him, ‘Black women don’t feel pain.’” (See the striking protest and read the whole post below.)

The protest’s organizer, Seshat Mack, told HuffPost that she and fellow BYP 100 members thought it was important to protest the New York City-based statue, especially as white supremacy is so frequently looked at as a “southern problem.”

“Memorializing white supremacy is an American problem, not just a southern one, and it’s a problem that we need to reckon with as a country,” Mack said.

She also discussed the important relevance of the intersection of black women and reproductive justice.

“We cannot overlook the fact that J. Marion Sims’ discoveries on enslaved black women’s bodies led to the foundation of modern gynecology,” she told HuffPost. And yet, as she points out, black women continue to receive poor reproductive and maternal health care.

“Black women continue to suffer worse health outcomes than white women,” she said. “In the United States, black women are still two-to-six times more likely to die during childbirth than white women. The institution of reproductive health was built on the exploitation of black women, but this very institution continues to underserve black women.”

BYP 100′s call for the statue’s removal comes less than a week after cities across the country removed Confederate statues in the wake of the neo-Nazi march in Charlottesville, Va. on August 12. (More and more cities have continued the effort.)

In New York City specifically, Mayor Bill de Blasio has called for a 90-day review of any “hate symbols.” City Councilwoman speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito hopes that Sims’ statue will be included in that analysis.

“It has got to go,” she told the New York Times. “When the panel does its analysis, I think they will come to the same conclusion.”

Mack told HuffPost that the removal of the statue would be a welcome response to her protest, but that the work can’t stop there.

“This is a really cute first step,” she said, of De Blasio’s analysis. “But the next step (and the harder step) is ensuring that removal of these racist, white supremacist statues isn’t simply symbolic.”

Mack cites reparations and a divestment in “systems uphold white supremacy” like the prison industrial complex, as true advancements in the fight for racial justice.

“We want investments in our communities for Black people, including robust mental health facilities, education, childcare, accessible and healthy food, [and] housing.”

CLARIFICATION: This piece has been updated to include comment from the protest’s organizer Seshat Mack.

Mooseheart Timeline

James J. Davis

Within five years – by late 1911 – the organization had grown to membership of nearly 200,000, and Davis, now carrying the title “Director General,” recommended that Moose leaders begin seeking the right parcel of real estate to set about establishing the so-called “Moose Institute.” The decision was ratified by the Convention, and once it became generally known, property offers swiftly came in from various parts of the United States. For an entire week in December 1911, a joint meeting of the Moose Supreme Council and newly-appointed Trustees of the Moose Institute met at the Willard Hotel in Washington to closely examine all offers.

Finding a Location

During these meetings and a number of subsequent ones, the leaders decided that the home and school should be located somewhere near the center of North American population, preferably adjacent to both rail transportation and a river, with fertile soil for farming, and within a day’s transportation to and from a major city. These conditions ruled out many potential sites. Finally, on Dec. 14, 1912, the leaders decided to purchase a 750-acre dairy operation known as Brookline Farm (near the western bank of the Fox River and two rail lines, 40 miles west of Chicago), plus adjacent acreage to the west and north owned by two other families—1,023 acres in total, Negotiations with all parties took place in January and February 1913, with final purchase expense totaling $264,000, and legal possession taken March 1. At that point, the place already had a name: a Feb. 1 joint meeting of the Supreme Council and Institute Trustees unanimously approved Congressman John J. Lentz’s proposal to name the new home and school “Mooseheart.”

Mooseheart Dedication

Dedication of Mooseheart was set for Sunday, July 27, 1913—the day before the opening of the 25th International Convention in Cincinnati. Thomas Marshall, then newly installed as Vice President of the United States, first balked at Supreme Governor Ralph Donges’s invitation to speak at a ceremony for what he viewed as an “orphanage.” Donges responded that “what we are planning will not be an orphanage at all. It will be a home and school for the children of our deceased members.

On its dedication day Mooseheart featured a large farmhouse dubbed Aid Hall, a few other ramshackle buildings, and a huge circus tent rented from Ringling Bros. for the occasion, to shield the gathering from the summer sun. Most importantly, there were 11 children present who would be the first to call Mooseheart home—the vanguard for more than 11,000 more who have lived and learned over more than 90 years at the at the Child City.

Vice President Marshall, in his July 27 remarks, said: “Thank God, here in this Middle West, here on this most sacred day, humanity has again proved its right to be called the children of the Most High has again reached out its hand in love and loyalty to the needy brother, and has disclosed not only the right, but the duty of this great Order to exist.”

New Ideas Take Shape

In August 1913, Supreme Secretary Rodney Brandon moved from Anderson, IN, where Moose headquarters had been located, to Mooseheart, to serve as the community’s first Superintendent. He brought with him Dr. J. A. Rondthaler, a Presbyterian minister and former college professor, whom as Dean took charge of students’ home life and schooling.

Under Brandon’s direction, the future design of Mooseheart began to take shape. James A. Young, city forester for nearby Aurora and owner of a nursery there, contributed landscape design services on a part-time basis. It was Young who also drew basic plans for a Mooseheart street layout, which he made roughly in the shape of a stylized heart.


Robert Havlik, a young civil engineer from Detroit, was hired in November 1913 to handle all construction of streets, utilities and permanent buildings. Brandon also rehired R.R. Luman, who had served as farm superintendent for Brookline’s previous owner. An Aurora physician was retained on a part-time basis to oversee an on-campus nurse and administer to health needs.

The pace of construction was feverish throughout Mooseheart’s first 10 years, but especially its first five. The current U.S. Post Office building (which then was also a railroad station and Mooseheart offices) was begun before the end of 1913. A complete water and sewer system was installed during the spring and summer of 1914, along with a coal-fired heating plant and steam lines. Rail carloads of elm trees were planted on the residential portion of the mostly bare campus (Many had to be replanted with other species 40 years later, when Dutch elm disease struck throughout the Midwest). A major boys’ dormitory, Loyalty Hall, and girls’ dormitory, Purity Hall (now Minnesota Home) were both built in 1914. Sixteen other buildings – residential and vocational structures, and a new school building – were completed between 1915 and 1918. The massive Administration/Auditorium Building, named for former President Theodore Roosevelt, was completed in 1918 and after having been begun in 1914.

Fifth Anniversary

That summer, on Mooseheart’s fifth anniversary, Vice President Marshall returned to speak at the dedication of the Auditorium, recalling five years before: “Let me tell you that when I spoke, there was a reservation in my mind . . . Thank God that today . . . the age of miracles has not passed. All that I hoped for, longed for and prayed for on that interesting occasion five years ago has come to pass at Mooseheart.”

The Great Depression

Mooseheart’s continued development continued unabated during the 1920s the famed five-structure Baby Village and the Campanile, an homage to James J. Davis, were both completed in 1922 15 more residences were built before 1930.

The Great Depression hit the Moose fraternity hard membership plummeted from 600,000 to less than 250,000 in just seven years. Meanwhile, Mooseheart bore the responsibility for the largest population of children and teens it would ever have, flirting with the 1,400 mark throughout the 1930s.

Between 1933 and the end of World War II, the only new Mooseheart structure built was its new football and track stadium in 1940, a gift from the Illinois Moose Association. Raising the funds for that, and designing it for no fee, was engineer Wayne Wallace of Chicago—a member of Mooseheart’s first graduating class in 1919.

End of WWII

The end of World War II saw one of America’s greatest honors bestowed on a Mooseheart graduate: U.S. Army Lt. Edward Silk, of the Mooseheart Class of 1935, was presented in October 1945 with the Congressional Medal of Honor from President Harry Truman, for valor and cunning in single-handedly forcing the surrender of a dozen enemy soldiers in France the year before.

With the end of the war came long-postponed renovation and construction at Mooseheart, highlighted by the magnificent multi-denominational House of God, built in 1948-50 after a fundraising drive that had begun more than 30 years before. The Malcolm R. Giles School building, now housing elementary through high school students in two separate wings, was dedicated in 1954 and added onto in 1963 and 1965. Pennsylvania Home, designed to resemble Philadelphia’s Independence Hall, was dedicated in 1958. At Mooseheart’s 50th anniversary celebration in 1963, the cavernous new Mooseheart Fieldhouse, attached to Illinois Memorial Stadium, was opened.

Updated Admission Policy

Up through the early 1960s, the original admission policy to Mooseheart remained largely unchanged, permitting only children of male Moose members who had died. As society changed swiftly throughout the 1960s, ’70s and ’80s, Mooseheart adjusted in response, steadily accepting more and more children whose families were in disarray due to divorce, substance abuse, severe economic reversal, or other reasons. Until 1994, however, admission generally required that there be a Moose member in a child’s extended family. But that year, the Moose fraternity’s leaders voted unanimously to expand the admissions policy to consider applications from any family in need, regardless of whether a Moose member was a part of their extended family.

Vocational Training

The 1980s and ’90s saw sweeping changes also in Mooseheart’s time-honored vocational-training program – unique at the time of the campus’ founding, and swiftly emulated by Boys Town in Nebraska and other similar facilities. Upon high school graduation, each Mooseheart student still receives both an academic diploma – and a certificate of proficiency in a trade, For decades, vocational training had taken place completely on campus in more than a dozen different trades. Training still occurs on-campus in Small Engines and Machines, Cosmetology/Hairstyling, Family and Consumer Science, Management Information Systems, Health Occupations and Banking. More recently, more flexible “co-op” vocational training arrangements have been established off-campus with numerous industries and retailers, offering a “real-world” glimpse at various lines of work.

Residence Renovations

Through the 1990s, a whirlwind of residential construction and renovation began anew at Mooseheart. Just from 1991 through 2002, beautiful brand-new residences were built and funded by the Moose of West Virginia, Illinois, Michigan, Maryland/Delaware, New Jersey and North Carolina. Additionally, full renovations of the New York, Tennessee, Washington/Northern Idaho, New England, Arizona/New Mexico, Ontario, Oregon, Iowa/Eastern Nebraska, Virginia, Alabama, South Carolina, Indiana, Minnesota, Wisconsin Georgia, and Pennsylvania Baby Village residences were undertaken.

The Women of the Moose of various states and provinces were instrumental in helping fund all of the above projects they also completely funded a full renovation of their own, as the Greater Chicago residence was renamed the Antoinette Marinello Home, honoring the woman who was the CEO of the Women of the Moose from 1979 through 1990.

501[c]3 Charity Registration

In 1994, the Mooseheart campus took its first step away from full financial reliance upon the Moose fraternity, when Mooseheart Child City & School was incorporated as a separate entity, a registered 501[c]3 charity under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code.

Paul J. O’Hollaren Centre

In 1998, Mooseheart’s first major new multipurpose structure opened since 1963, as the Paul J. O’Hollaren Centre was dedicated, named in honor of the Moose fraternity’s Director General from 1984-1994. This meeting, reception and banquet facility was funded by portions of new-member application fees, with additional funds for landscaping and furnishings from the Moose Legion and the Women of the Moose.

School Addition

In 2001, the first major addition to the Mooseheart School complex since 1965 was completed – This 12,000-sq.-ft. project joined both north and south wings on their east end, and consists of the Florida/Bermuda Cafeteria, the Kay Cancie Gymnasium for physical education, and a Band Room funded by the Order’s Fellows and Pilgrims. This addition enabled an all-student-body assembly to be held within the school structure for the first time.

New Executive Director

In 2003, Mooseheart gained its youngest Executive Director since its first one, Rodney Brandon, when 34-year-old Scott D. Hart assumed the post. Hart and his wife, Christie, had been career Mooseheart staffers since coming to the campus in 1991. The new Executive Director had served as a Family Teacher, Dean, and Assistant Executive Director.

In December 2012, the Moose fraternity's Supreme Council selected Hart to succeed the retiring William B. Airey as the tenth Director General/CEO of Moose International Hart, in turn, selected Gary L. Urwiler to succeed him as Executive Director of Mooseheart—an appointment that was swiftly confirmed by the Mooseheart Board of Directors. Urwiler became the second Mooseheart alumnus to rise to lead the campus in adulthood (the first having been Robert Hanke from 1974-80). Urwiler, who had come to Mooseheart at age 12 in 1981, was graduated in 1987. He earned a bachelor's degree in education at Eureka College in 1992, and a master's degree in educational administration from Aurora University in 2001. From 1995-2000 he served Mooseheart as Dean of Students, Athletic Director head football coach from 2003-12 he served as Superintendent of Education/Principal, and again as head football coach.

Foundation Figurine of a Kneeling God - History

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Baal, god worshipped in many ancient Middle Eastern communities, especially among the Canaanites, who apparently considered him a fertility deity and one of the most important gods in the pantheon. As a Semitic common noun baal (Hebrew baʿal) meant “owner” or “lord,” although it could be used more generally for example, a baal of wings was a winged creature, and, in the plural, baalim of arrows indicated archers. Yet such fluidity in the use of the term baal did not prevent it from being attached to a god of distinct character. As such, Baal designated the universal god of fertility, and in that capacity his title was Prince, Lord of the Earth. He was also called the Lord of Rain and Dew, the two forms of moisture that were indispensable for fertile soil in Canaan. In Ugaritic and Hebrew, Baal’s epithet as the storm god was He Who Rides on the Clouds. In Phoenician he was called Baal Shamen, Lord of the Heavens.

Knowledge of Baal’s personality and functions derives chiefly from a number of tablets uncovered from 1929 onward at Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), in northern Syria, and dating to the middle of the 2nd millennium bce . The tablets, although closely attached to the worship of Baal at his local temple, probably represent Canaanite belief generally. Fertility was envisaged in terms of seven-year cycles. In the mythology of Canaan, Baal, the god of life and fertility, locked in mortal combat with Mot, the god of death and sterility. If Baal triumphed, a seven-year cycle of fertility would ensue but, if he were vanquished by Mot, seven years of drought and famine would ensue.

Ugaritic texts tell of other fertility aspects of Baal, such as his relations with Anath, his consort and sister, and also his siring a divine bull calf from a heifer. All this was part of his fertility role, which, when fulfilled, meant an abundance of crops and fertility for animals and mankind.

But Baal was not exclusively a fertility god. He was also king of the gods, and, to achieve that position, he was portrayed as seizing the divine kingship from Yamm, the sea god.

The myths also tell of Baal’s struggle to obtain a palace comparable in grandeur to those of other gods. Baal persuaded Asherah to intercede with her husband El, the head of the pantheon, to authorize the construction of a palace. The god of arts and crafts, Kothar, then proceeded to build for Baal the most beautiful of palaces which spread over an area of 10,000 acres. The myth may refer in part to the construction of Baal’s own temple in the city of Ugarit. Near Baal’s temple was that of Dagon, given in the tablets as Baal’s father.

The worship of Baal was popular in Egypt from the later New Kingdom in about 1400 bce to its end (1075 bce ). Through the influence of the Aramaeans, who borrowed the Babylonian pronunciation Bel, the god ultimately became known as the Greek Belos, identified with Zeus.

Baal was also worshipped by various communities as a local god. The Hebrew scriptures speak frequently of the Baal of a given place or refers to Baalim in the plural, suggesting the evidence of local deities, or “lords,” of various locales. It is not known to what extent the Canaanites considered those various Baalim identical, but the Baal of Ugarit does not seem to have confined his activities to one city, and doubtless other communities agreed in giving him cosmic scope.

In the formative stages of Israel’s history, the presence of Baal names did not necessarily mean apostasy or even syncretism. The judge Gideon was also named Jerubbaal (Judges 6:32), and King Saul had a son named Ishbaal (I Chronicles 8:33). For those early Hebrews, “Baal” designated the Lord of Israel, just as “Baal” farther north designated the Lord of Lebanon or of Ugarit. What made the very name Baal anathema to the Israelites was the program of Jezebel, in the 9th century bce , to introduce into Israel her Phoenician cult of Baal in opposition to the official worship of Yahweh (I Kings 18). By the time of the prophet Hosea (mid-8th century bce ) the antagonism to Baalism was so strong that the use of the term Baal was often replaced by the contemptuous boshet (“shame”) in compound proper names, for example, Ishbosheth replaced the earlier Ishbaal.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

Boston Removes a Statue Depicting a Free Black Man Kneeling Before Abraham Lincoln, and It Only Took Them 150 Years!

Today I learned that a statue depicting a freed Black man kneeling before President Abraham Lincoln stood in Boston since 1879, further proving that America has had a white savior complex since before any of us were born.

According to NBC Boston , the statue, a replica of t he Emancipation Memorial in Washington, D.C., was finally taken down this week after officials voted to remove it over the summer. The vote came after a petition to remove the statue garnered thousands of signatures. Tory Bullock, a Boston native and the creator of the petition, told NBC Boston that the statue had bothered him since he was a child, with the question “If he’s free, why is he still on his knees?” often coming to mind when he saw it.

I can’t even front, it’s a weird fucking statue. Now, I’m not going to use this time to dunk on Lincoln. That’s mainly due to having a public school education and not knowing much about the man beyond issuing the Emancipation Proclamation and apparently scoring four times in Gettysburg. I will, however, talk shit about the choices made by whoever designed this statue.

Off jump, the fact that the man is allegedly free but is still kneeling before a white man is just a bad look. There’s no way around it. The badness of it all is only compounded by Lincoln’s posture and facial expression. He looks almost annoyed, as though he’s saying “Y eah yeah, you’re free, whatever, now can I go home?”

Also, he has one hand on what I can only imagine is the Emancipation Proclamation and another held over the freedman, as though he’s casting some sort of freedom enchantment.

Statues Commonly Mistaken for the Historical Buddha

(Click To View Larger Image)

Kuan Yin / Avalokiteshvara

You are more likely to come across the female form of Kuan Yin in Chinese temples, while the male from of Avalokiteshvara is more commonly encountered in the Mahayana schools of Buddhism found in Nepal, Tibet, and India.

(Click To View Larger Image)

Happy Buddha / Ho Tai / Prosperity Buddha

Part of the reason Ho Tai is confused with the Buddha is because they both wear robes, and that in certain languages (Thai, for instance) the vernacular word for the Buddha and for Monks is the same, namely, the word "Phra." It can be confusing even for us Thai people, because if someone were to use JUST the word Phra, we might not know whether they were referring to the Buddha himself, a monk, a statue of the Buddha, or even an amulet (religious pendant) featuring an image of the Buddha. or an image of a highly revered monk!

Ho Tai is often depicted in various forms as well, either with his arms above his head, reaching skyward, or sometimes holding a bag or knapsack over one shoulder. But no matter how he is depicted, he always has a happy face.

Ancient Hawaiian Tiki Gods! Hawaiian Mythology & Tiki God History

In ancient mythic Hawaii, from fire spewing volcanos too powerful crashing surf, ancient Hawaiians filled their amazing land and history with tiki gods. Ancient oracles of Hawaiian kahunas perched on volcanic cliffs, carved wooden tikis peering through the rainforest, mystic caves along the cost and great tiki god temples of sacrifice were located amongst the Hawaiian tiki villages and islands. They were worshipped through human sacrifice, chants (for wealth, death or love), prayers, surfing and lava sledding. (see the bottom of the page for this amazing sign of devotion in which the hawaiians sled down a volcano at speeds up to 50mph!)

Tiki Gods Temple

Related Pages :

Hawaiian Mythology
Mythic Hawaii
"Hawaiian Folktales"

War God Temples

The Four Major Tiki Gods
Hawaiian Forces of Nature Personified

Ku – Ancient Tiki God of War
In Hawaiian mythology Ku is one of the four great gods along with the ancient tiki gods, Kanaloa, Kane, and Lono. He was the husband of the goddess Hina (Beckwith 1970:12), suggesting a complementary dualism as the word ku in the Hawaiian language means "standing up" while one meaning of 'hina' is 'fallen down.'

Ku is worshipped under many names, including Ku-ka-ili-moku, the "Seizer of Land" (a feather-god, the guardian of Kamehameha). Rituals included human sacrifice, which was not part of the worship of the other gods. Ku, Kane, and Lono caused light to shine in upon the world. They are uncreated gods who have existed from eternity (Tregear 1891:540).

Lono – Ancient Tiki God of Fertility and Peace
In Hawaiian mythology, Lono is a fertility and music god who descended to Earth on a rainbow to marry Laka. In agricultural and planting traditions, Lono was identified with rain and food plants. He was one of the four gods (with Ku, Kane, and his twin brother Kanaloa) who existed before the world was created. Lono was also the god of peace. In his honor, the great annual festival of the Makahiki was held. During this period (from October through February), all unnecessary work and war was kapu (taboo). This is also the season of taxes, olympic like games and when chiefs regrouped their forces (and organized campaigns ironically).

Lono and the death of Captain Cook
Some Hawaiians believed that Captain James Cook was Lono returned and indeed this fact may have ultimately contributed to Capt. Cook's death (see James Cook - Third voyage (1776-1779)). However, it is uncertain whether Captian Cook was taken for the god Lono or one of several historical or legendary figures who were also referred to as Lono-i-ka-Makahiki. According to Beckwith, there was indeed a tradition that such a human manifestation of the god [Lono] had actually appeared, established games and perhaps the annual taxing, and then departed to "Kahiki," promising to return "by sea on the canoes ‘Auwa’alalua" according to the prose note. "A Spanish man of war" translates the queen, remembering a tradition of arrival of a Spanish galleon beaten out of its course in the early days of exploration of the Pacific "a very large double canoe" is Mrs. Pukui's more literal rendering, from ‘Au[hau]-wa’a-l[o]a-lua. The blue-sailed jellyfish we call "Portuguese man-of-war" Hawaiians speak of, perhaps half in derision, as ‘Auwa’alalua. The mother honored Keawe's son, perhaps born propitiously during the period of the Makahiki, by giving him the name of Lono-i-ka-Makahiki, seeing perhaps in the child a symbol of the tiki god's promised return.” (Beckwith 1951).

Kane – Ancient Tiki God of Light and Life
In Hawaiian mythology, Kane Milohai is the father of the tiki gods Ka-moho-ali'i, Pele (whom he exiled to Hawaii), Kapo, Namaka and Hi'iaka by Haumea. He created the sky, earth and upper heaven and gave Kumu-Honua the garden. He owned a tiny seashell that, when placed on the ocean's waves, turned into a huge sailboat. The user of the boat had merely to state his destination and the boat took him there. In agricultural and planting traditions, Kane was identified with the sun.

The word Kane alone means "man". As a creative force, Kane was the heavenly father of all men. As he was the father of all living things, he was a symbol of life in nature.

In many chants and legends of Ancient Hawaii, Kane is paired with the god Kanaloa, and is considered one of the four great Hawaiian divinities along with Kanaloa, Ku, and Lono.

Alternatively known as Kane, Kane-Hekili ("thunderer" or "lightning breaking through the sky"), Kane Hoalani.

Kanaloa – Ancient Tiki God the Sea
Kanaloa is one of the four great gods of Hawaiian mythology, along with Kane, Ku, and Lono. He is the local form of a Polynesian deity generally connected with the sea. Roughly equivalent deities are known as Tangaroa in New Zealand, Tagaloa in Samoa, and Ta'aroa in Tahiti.

In the traditions of Ancient Hawaii, Kanaloa is symbolized by the squid, and is typically associated with Kane in legends and chants where they are portrayed as complementary powers (Beckwith 1970:62-65). For example: Kane was called upon during the building of a canoe, Kanaloa during the sailing of it Kane governed the northern edge of the ecliptic, Kanaloa the southern Kanaloa points to hidden springs, and Kane then taps them out. In this way, they represent a divine duality of wild and taming forces like those observed (by Georges Dumezil, et al.) in Indo-European chief god-pairs like Odin-Tyr and Mitra-Varuna, and like the popular yin-yang of Chinese Taoism.

Interpretations of Kanaloa as a god of evil opposing the good Kane (a reading that defies their paired invocations and shared devotees in Ancient Hawaii) is likely the result of European missionary efforts to recast the four major divinities of Hawaii in the image of the Christian Trinity plus Satan.

Minor Tiki Gods and Legends

Kauhuhu - The Shark God of Molokai
Kauhuhu lives in a cave on the side of a high ocean cliff that is protected by two ancient Hawaiian dragons. He arrives to his cave by riding the eighth wave in a set of giant waves. He devoured any man the saw him and his dragons killed anyone who entered his cave. Once however he found a man in his cave and quickly pounced on him and had him halfway in his mouth when he took pity on him. The man, Kamalo, was able to explain quickly enough that his sons had been murdered for playing a powerful chiefs tiki drums. The chief, Kapu, was very powerful and everyone feared him so Kamalo had to seek Kauhuhu, the shark god.

The shark god instructed Kamalo to return to his village in the Mapulehu Valley and to prepare a sanctuary with many sacred animals and surrounded by sacred white tapa kapu staffs. Then he would wait the arrival of the shark god. A giant cloud would float against the wind over from the Lanai island. It would grow in size and cover the mountains above Mapulehu Valley. From it a rainbow would appear and Kamalo would know the shark god had arriaved.

Kamalo returned to his home and took care of the shark gods old priest (kahuna) who he carried up a cliff, he then placed the kapu staffs in a large ring on the cliff, fencing in the sacred animals. Kamalo called all those close to him together to live within the enclosure. Then he waited with his eyes toward Lanai.

Months past until the cloud appeared, it traveled against the wind and came to rest above the mountains that loomed over the Mapulehu Valley. A rainbow appeared and the winds began to pick up force. Towering dark Storm clouds soon blew in and a great storm began to rage. Lightning broke the sky and torrential rains poured forth in quantities the island had never known. The water rushed down the mountains into the valley in a flash flood. The torrent rushed from the mountain with such force everything before it was swept up into it. The only area that was not devastated was the sanctuary with in the kapu staffs where Kamalo and his followers watched in awe. The storm ravaged the land and the waters flooded the valley, washing everything before it away. Kupa, his home, all of his followers and possessions were washed into the sea where the people of Kauhuhu's sharks awaited to deliver Kamalo's final revenge. The bay waters were soon stained red with the blood of Kupa and his followers.

After this day the bay was known as Aikanaka, meaning 'man-eater', and everyone learned a great respect for the power of clouds in the peaks above their village. Everyone that heard the story also learned great respect for the power of the Shark God, Kauhuhu.

Kaupe - The Cannibal Dog Man
In ancient Hawaii, there was a class of people called Olohe who were hairless and often specialized in wrestling and bone breaking. Unfortunately, they were also known to be cannibals and robbers. Their leader was Kaupe and he had the power to turn into a giant dog. He used these powers to stalk and kill men until his death. Now he hunts hawaiians as a ghost dog.

In Hawaiian legend, Nightmarchers (huaka'i po or "Spirit Ranks," 'oi'o) are the ghosts of ancient Hawaiian warriors. On certain nights, they are said come forth from their burial sites to march out, weapons in hand, to past battles or to other sacred places. Anyone living near their path may hear chanting and marching, and must go inside to avoid notice. They might appear during the day if coming to escort a dying relative to the spirit world. Anyone looking upon or seen by the marchers will die unless a relative is within the marcher's ranks- some people maintain that if you lie face down on the ground they will not see you. Others say that this only works if you are naked. Still others say that you should be naked, lie face up and feign sleep. Placing leaves of the ti (Cordyline sp.) around one's home is said to keep away all evil spirits, and will cause the huaka'i po to avoid the area. Another be

Nanaue - The Shark Man
Once a shark king noticed a beautiful princess on a Hawaiian beach. He approached her in the form of a great human chief and they fell in love. They were married and she became pregnant. However, on the night before she gave birth to her son, Nanaue, the Shark King departed. He warned her to never let the boy eat meat and returned to the sea.

When the boy was born the princess noticed a slit on his back, she kept it covered and hid it from the village. As he grew this slit became a large shark mouth upon his back that he kept covered from all. When the boy grew to be a man she could not eat with him because of a strict taboo against women and men eating together. One day the boy ate meat and developed a ravenous taste for it. From then on he would follow people to the beach when they went swimming, he would then turn to the form of a giant shark and eat them as they returned to the shore. However, after many died the village became suspicious and tore Nanaue's shirt off revealing the large shark mouth on his back.

After much struggle and vicious bites from the mouth on Shark Man's back the villagers tied him up. The high chief then ordered that a great oven be built and everyone dug a pit and placed stones in it. They then attempted to heave the Shark Man into the oven, but he then turned himself into shark form, snapping the ropes that bound him. Nanaue flopped, snapped at people and eventually tumbled down a hill into a river that flowed from the Waipio falls. The warriors of the valley ran along the side of the river, throwing spears and stones at the giant shark, but none dared enter and before they could get their nets Nanaue swam into the sea.

Nanaue swam far from Waipio valley and was not sighted again until he resurfaced in Maui were they had not yet heard about the Shark Man. He resided near Hana and married their chief, a beautiful women. There, he secretly fed on the people of Maui until he became careless and was seen changing shape and attacking a victim. The villagers then launched canoes and hunted Nanaue out of their waters.

Nanaue later surfaced in Maui where he settled near Hana. Unfortunately though, he hadn't lost his taste for human flesh and he began feeding on innocent villagers. One day he became careless though and was spotted changing into shark form to pursue a swimmer. The warriors of Maui then lunched their canoes and pursued him instead! Using spears and nets they attempted to capture and kill the Shark Man, but he slipped away into the wide ocean.

Once again the Shark Man remerged onto a Hawaiian island. This time it was Molokai where he began a new life. Swimmers began disappearing again though and suspicion was raised. The network of Hawaiian Kahunas had by this time spread the word about the dangerous Shark Man and kahunas of Molokai placed everyone on alert.

The fishermen, who were a crucial part of the effort to find the Shark Man, noticed a man slip into the water and then a giant shark in the sea. They cautiously angled their boats toward him then threw out their nets. The Shark Man was entangled, but he would soon escape however the warriors of Molokai were ready and launched their canoe and joined the struggle. The great shark form of Nanaue was stabbed with spears and repeatedly netted. Kahunas chanted and used all of their magic to sap the shark of his great strength. The terrible struggle stained the sea red but the might of the Molokai fishermen, warriors and kahunas proved to be too much for Nanaue. He was eventually dragged to the shore where he was beaten with war clubs, slashed with sharktoothed weapons and stabbed with spears. Finally the form of the great shark reverted back to that of a man with a shark mouth on his back, bleeding from dozens of wounds in the shallow red stained surf.

The high chief of Molokai then ordered Nanaue's body to be chopped up and the pieces thrown into an oven. The villagers were happy to oblige and such was the end of the Nanaue. Soon the word about his death spread like smoke from the oven, and all Hawaiians breathed easier knowing the Shark Man had been vanquished. (for a longer version see Hawaiian-Mythology )

Lua-o-Milu – Land of the Dead
In Hawaiian mythology, Lua-o-Milu is the land of the dead, ruled by Milu. Dead souls enter Lua-o-Milu through a trail called Mahiki. The spirits of the dead can watch what the living do and turn them to stone by staring at them.
(see see Hawaiian-Mythology for more information)

Other Ancient Hawaiian Tiki Gods
In a famous creation story, the demigod Maui fished the islands of Hawaii from the sea after a little mistake he made on a fishing trip. From Haleakala, Maui ensnared the sun in another story, forcing him to slow down so there was equal periods of darkness and light each day. Pele is another famous deity, the fiery (in more then one way) daughter of Kane who brought the sea to Hawaii and causes lava flows.

Ancient Hawaiian Lava Sledding
Hawaiian lava sledding (Hawaiian: he‘e holua, "mountain surfing") is a traditional sport of Native Hawaiians. Similar to wave surfing, he‘e holua involves the use of a narrow 12 foot long, 6 inch wide wooden sled (papaholua) made from native wood like Kau‘ila or Ohia. The sled is used standing up, lying down, or kneeling, to ride down man-made courses of lava rock, often reaching speeds of 50 mph or greater. In the past, Hawaiian lava sledding was considered both a sport and a religious ritual for honoring the gods.