German Light Panzers, 1932-1942, Bryan Perrett

German Light Panzers, 1932-1942, Bryan Perrett


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German Light Panzers, 1932-1942, Bryan Perrett

German Light Panzers, 1932-1942, Bryan Perrett

New Vanguard 26

This entry in the New Vanguard series looks at the Panzer I, Panzer II and the two Czech designed tanks taken into German service, the Panzer 35(t) and Panzer 38(t). Although these tanks are often overshadowed by the Panzer IV, Panther and Tiger, it was actually the light panzers that provided the bulk of the tanks during the victorious German campaigns in Poland and France, and even during the early days of the invasion of Russia.

This book traces the development of the light tanks from their birth in the early 30s, before the Nazis came to power, into the peace-time years of Nazi Germany, when Hitler's aggressive foreign policy forced the Germans to rush the Panzer I and II into mass production.

Perrett finishes by looking at the active service of these tanks, from their heyday as the backbone of the German Panzer forces in 1939-40 to the long period where despite being outclassed many of these tanks had to fight on, in North Africa and Russia.

This is a well balanced book that combines a technical discussion of the various types of light tanks, a look at the Panzer divisions and their equipment and the battlefield tactics and experience of the German light tank forces. As always with Osprey books, this is well a well illustrated work, with a good selection of contemporary photographs and a section of colour illustrations.

Author: Bryan Perrett
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 48
Publisher: Osprey
Year: 1998 revised second edition

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Bryan Perrett

Bryan Perrett was educated at Liverpool College. He served in the Royal Tank Regiment and was awarded the Territorial Decoration. A professional military historian for many years, his books include A History of the Blitzkrieg and Knights of the Black Cross: Hitler's Panzerwaffe and its Leaders. His treatise Desert Warfare was widely consulted during the Gulf War. His most recent works, including Last Stand!, At All Costs! and Against all Odds! examine aspects of motivation. During the. See more

Bryan Perrett was educated at Liverpool College. He served in the Royal Tank Regiment and was awarded the Territorial Decoration. A professional military historian for many years, his books include A History of the Blitzkrieg and Knights of the Black Cross: Hitler's Panzerwaffe and its Leaders. His treatise Desert Warfare was widely consulted during the Gulf War. His most recent works, including Last Stand!, At All Costs! and Against all Odds! examine aspects of motivation. During the Falklands and Gulf Wars Bryan Perrett served as Defense Correspondent to the Liverpool Echo. He is the author of The Hunters and the Hunted (2012), Why the Germans Lost (2013) and Why the Japanese Lost (2014), all published by Pen and Sword Books. See less


Contents

The post-World War I Treaty of Versailles of 1919 prohibited the design, manufacture and deployment of tanks within the Reichswehr. Paragraph Twenty-four of the treaty provided for a 100,000-mark fine and imprisonment of up to six months for anybody who "[manufactured] armoured vehicles, tanks or similar machines, which may be turned to military use". [ 2 ]

Despite the manpower and technical limitations imposed upon the German Army by the Treaty of Versailles, several Reichswehr officers established a clandestine General Staff to study World War I and develop future strategies and tactics. Although at first the concept of the tank as a mobile weapon of war met with apathy, German industry was silently encouraged to look into tank design, while quiet cooperation was undertaken with the Soviet Union. [ 3 ] There was also minor military cooperation with Sweden, including the extraction of technical data that proved invaluable to early German tank design. [ 4 ] As early as 1926 various German companies, including Rheinmetall and Daimler-Benz, produced a single prototype armed with a large 75-millimeter cannon (the Großtraktor, "large tractor", was so codenamed to veil the true purpose of the vehicle). [ 5 ] Only two years later prototypes of the new Leichttraktor ("light tractor"), were produced by German companies, armed with 37-millimeter KwK L/45 guns. [ 6 ] The Großtraktor was later put into service for a brief period with the 1 Panzer Division the Leichttraktor remained in testing until 1935. [ 5 ]

In the late 1920s and early 1930s German tank theory was pioneered by two figures: General Oswald Lutz and his chief of staff, Lieutenant Colonel Heinz Guderian. Guderian became the more influential of the two and his ideas were widely publicized. [ 7 ] Like his contemporary Sir Percy Hobart, Guderian initially envisioned an armored corps (panzerkorps) composed of several types of tanks. This included a slow infantry tank, armed with a small-caliber cannon and several machine guns. The infantry tank, according to Guderian, was to be heavily armored to defend against enemy anti-tank guns and artillery. He also envisioned a fast breakthrough tank, similar to the British cruiser tank, which was to be armored against enemy anti-tank weapons and have a large 75-millimeter (2.95 in) main gun. Lastly, Germany would need a heavy tank, armed with a massive 150-millimeter (5.9 in) cannon to defeat enemy fortifications, and even stronger armor. Such a tank would require a weight of 70 to 100 tonnes and was completely impractical given the manufacturing capabilities of the day. [ 8 ]

Soon after rising to power in Germany, Adolf Hitler approved the creation of Germany's first panzer divisions. Simplifying his earlier proposal, Guderian suggested the design of a main combat vehicle which would be developed into the Panzer III, and a breakthrough tank, the Panzer IV. [ 9 ] No existing design appealed to Guderian. As a stopgap, the German Army ordered a preliminary vehicle to train German tank crews. This became the Panzer I. [ 10 ]

The Panzer I's design history can be traced to 1932's Landwirtschaftlicher Schlepper (La S) (Agricultural Tractor) armored fighting vehicle. The La S was intended not just to train Germany's panzer troops, but to prepare Germany's industry for the mass production of tanks in the near future: a difficult engineering feat for the time. [ 11 ] In July 1932, Krupp revealed a prototype of the Landswerk Krupp A, or LKA, with a sloped front glacis plate and large central casemate, a design heavily influenced by the British Carden Loyd tankette. The tank was armed with two obsolescent 7.92-millimeter (.312 in) MG-13 Dreyse machine guns. [ 12 ] Machine guns were known to be largely useless against even the lightest tank armor of the time, restricting the Panzer I to a training and anti-infantry role by design. [ 13 ]

A mass-produced version of the LKA was designed by a collaborative team from Daimler-Benz, Henschel, Krupp, MAN, and Rheinmetall, exchanging the casemate for a rotating turret. This version was accepted into service after testing in 1934. [ 14 ] Although these tanks were referred to as the La S and LKA well beyond the start of production, its official designation, assigned in 1938, was Panzerkampfwagen I Ausführung. A ('model A' or, more accurately, 'batch A'). [ 15 ] The first fifteen tanks, produced between February and March 1934, did not include the rotating turret and were used for crew training. [ 16 ] Following these, production was switched to the combat version of the tank. The Ausf. A was under-armored, with steel plate of only 13 millimeters (0.51 in) at its thickest. The tank had several design flaws, including suspension problems which made the vehicle pitch at high velocities, and engine overheating. [ 17 ] The driver was positioned inside the chassis and used conventional steering levers to control the tank, while the commander was positioned in the turret where he also acted as gunner. The two crewmen could communicate by means of voice tube. [ 18 ] Machine gun ammunition was stowed in five bins, containing various numbers of 25-round magazines. [ 19 ] Author Lucas Molina Franco suggests that 833 Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf. A tanks were built in total, [ 20 ] while authors Bryan Perrett offers the number of 300 [ 21 ] and Terry Gander 818 units. [ 22 ]

Many of the problems in the Ausf. A were corrected with the introduction of the Ausf. B. The engine was replaced by the water-cooled, six-cylinder Maybach NL 38 TR, developing 98 horsepower (73 kW), and the gearbox was changed to a more reliable model. The larger engine required the extension of the vehicle's chassis by 40 cm (16 in), and this allowed the improvement of the tank's suspension, adding an additional bogie wheel and raising the tensioner. [ 23 ] The tank's weight increased by 0.4 tons. Production of the Ausf. B began in August 1935 and finished in early 1937—Franco writes 840 were constructed, [ 24 ] but notes that only 675 of these were combat models, [ 25 ] while Perrett suggests a total number of 1,500 (offsetting the low number of Ausf. A he proposes) [ 21 ] and Gander a total of 675. [ 22 ]

Sister tanks

Two more combat versions of the Panzer I were designed and produced between 1939 and 1942. By this stage the design concept had been superseded by medium and heavy tanks and neither variant was produced in sufficient numbers to have a real impact on the progress of the war. These new tanks had nothing in common with either the Ausf. A or B except name. [ 26 ] One of these, the Panzer I Ausf. C, was designed jointly between Krauss-Maffei and Daimler-Benz in 1939 to provide an amply armored and armed reconnaissance light tank. [ 21 ] The Ausf. C boasted a completely new chassis and turret, a modern torsion-bar suspension and five interleaved roadwheels. [ 27 ] It also had a maximum armor thickness of 30 millimeters (1.18 in), over twice that of either the Ausf. A or B, and was armed with a 20-millimeter (0.78 in) EW 141 autocannon. [ 28 ] Forty of these tanks were produced, [ 29 ] along with six prototypes. [ 26 ] Two tanks were deployed to 1 Panzer Division in 1943, and the other thirty-eight were deployed to the LVIII Panzer Reserve Corps during the Normandy landings. [ 30 ]

The second vehicle, the Ausf. F, was as different from the Ausf. C as it was from the Ausf. A and B. [ 31 ] Intended as an infantry support tank, the Panzer I Ausf. F had a maximum armour thickness of 80 millimeters (3.15 in) and weighed between 18 and 21 tonnes. [ 32 ] The Ausf. F was armed with two 7.92-millimeter MG-34s. [ 33 ] Thirty were produced in 1940, and a second order of 100 was later canceled. In order to compensate for the increased weight, a new 150 horsepower (110 kW) Maybach HL45 Otto engine was used, allowing a maximum road speed of 25 kilometers per hour (15.5 mph). Eight of the thirty tanks produced were sent to the 1 Panzer Division in 1943 and saw combat at the Battle of Kursk. The rest were given to several army schools for training and evaluation purposes. [ 34 ]


PERRETT, Bryan

PERRETT, Bryan. British, b. 1934. Genres: Children's fiction, History, Military/Defense/Arms control. Career: Served in the Royal Armoured Corps, Regular and Territorial Army, 1952-70 Defence Correspondent, Liverpool Echo, during the Falklands and Gulf Wars. Publications: Fighting Vehicles of the Red Army, 1969 NATO Armour, 1971 The Valentine in North Africa 1942-43, 1972 The Matilda, 1973 The Churchill, 1974 Through Mud and Blood, 1975 Tank Tracks to Rangoon, 1978 The Lee/ Grant Tank in British Service, 1978 Allied Tank Destroyers, 1979 Wavell's Offensive, 1979 Sturmartillerie and Panzerjager, 1979 The Churchill Tank, 1980 The Stuart Light Tank Series, 1980 The Panzerkampfwagen III IV and V, 3 vols., 1980-81 British Tanks in North Africa 1940-42, 1981 (with A. Lord) Czar's British Squadron, 1981 The Tiger Tanks, 1981 History of Biltzkrieg, 1982 German Armoured Cars, 1982 German Light Panzers, 1982 Weapons of the Falklands Conflict, 1982 Mechanized Infantry, 1984 The Hawks, 1984 (ed. and contrib.) Elite Fighting Units, 1984 Lightning War, 1985 Allied Tanks Italy, 1985 Allied Tanks North Africa, 1986 Knights of the Black Cross, 1986 A Hawk at War, 1986 Soviet Armour since 1945, 1987 Desert Warfare, 1988 (with I. Hogg) Encyclopedia of the Second World War, 1989 Canopy of War, 1990 Tank Warfare, 1990 Liverpool: A City at War, 1990 Last Stand!, 1991 The Battle Book, 1992 At All Costs, 1993 Seize and Hold, 1994 Iron Fist, 1995 Against All Odds!, 1995 Impossible Victories, 1996 The Real Hornblower-The Life & Times of Admiral Sir James Gordon, 1998 Megiddo, 1999 Gunboat, 2000 The Taste of Battle, 2000 The Changing Face of Battle, 2000 Last Convoy, 2000 Beach Assault, 2000 Heroes of the Hour, 2001 Trafalgar, 2002 The Crimea, 2002 Waterloo, 2003 For Valour-Victoria Cross & Medal of Honor Battles, 2003. Address: 7 Maple Ave, Burscough near Ormskirk, Lancs., England. Online address: [email protected]

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Feldgrau.net

I have seen information about the rate of traverse of hydraulically powered turrets (like those on the Panther and Tigers I and II) I've seen information on electrically traversed turrets (like those on the Panzer IV models, with the exception of the J model) but I have never seen figures on how rapidly one could traverse the turret of those tanks that didn't have hydraulic or electric drives, like the Panzers I, II and III, the Panzer 35 (t) and Panzer 38 (t), and the late war Panzer IVJ.

For instance, I've read (in Bryan Perrett's "German Light Panzers 1932-1942") that the Panzer II had a traverse handwheel that gave you four degrees of traverse per full turn of the handwheel. The manual traverse mechanism was operated by a clutch with three control levers labelled:

EIN (traverse gear engaged traverse lock disengaged)
AUS (traverse gear disengaged traverse lock disengaged)
EST (traverse gear disengaged traverse lock engaged)

In the AUS position you could turn the turret using two handles on the turret ring.

How many degrees of traverse could you get by turning the handwheels in other vehicles like the Panzer I, Panzer III, and Panzer 38(t) tanks? Likewise, how fast could the turret be turned using the handwheel or the handles on the turret rings of these manually traversed turrets? Could these light tanks turrets be traversed as rapidly as the Panzer IV's electrically powered turret traverse?

Re: rate of traverse of German tanks

Post by Darrin » Mon Jan 12, 2004 5:03 am

Andy Phillpotts wrote: I have seen information about the rate of traverse of hydraulically powered turrets (like those on the Panther and Tigers I and II) I've seen information on electrically traversed turrets (like those on the Panzer IV models, with the exception of the J model) but I have never seen figures on how rapidly one could traverse the turret of those tanks that didn't have hydraulic or electric drives, like the Panzers I, II and III, the Panzer 35 (t) and Panzer 38 (t), and the late war Panzer IVJ.

For instance, I've read (in Bryan Perrett's "German Light Panzers 1932-1942") that the Panzer II had a traverse handwheel that gave you four degrees of traverse per full turn of the handwheel. The manual traverse mechanism was operated by a clutch with three control levers labelled:

EIN (traverse gear engaged traverse lock disengaged)
AUS (traverse gear disengaged traverse lock disengaged)
EST (traverse gear disengaged traverse lock engaged)

In the AUS position you could turn the turret using two handles on the turret ring.

How many degrees of traverse could you get by turning the handwheels in other vehicles like the Panzer I, Panzer III, and Panzer 38(t) tanks? Likewise, how fast could the turret be turned using the handwheel or the handles on the turret rings of these manually traversed turrets? Could these light tanks turrets be traversed as rapidly as the Panzer IV's electrically powered turret traverse?


Panzerkampfwagen III Medium Tank 1936-44

During the glory years of blitzkrieg the PzKpfw III was the only weapon in the German tank arsenal that really counted. Like Napoleon's vieux moustaches, it did not merely witness history in the making - it made it, from the Channel to the Volga, and from the Arctic to the North African desert. It was the PzKpfw III that brought Hitler to the gates of Moscow and the closest to achieving his wildest dreams. This detailed study delves into the development and employment of the PzKpfw III, as well as its organisation and battlefield experience, illustrated by an examination of the battles in which it took part.

Bryan Perrett was born in 1934 and educated at Liverpool College. He served in the Royal Armoured Corps, the 17th/21st Lancers, Westminster Dragoons and the Royal Tank Regiment, and was awarded the Territorial Decoration. During the Falklands and Gulf wars, he worked as defence correspondent for the Liverpool Echo. A highly successful author, Bryan is married and lives in Lancashire. Mike Chappell comes from an Aldershot family with British Army connections stretching back several generations. He enlisted as a teenage private in the Royal Hampshire Regiment in 1952 and retired in 1974, as RSM of the 1st Battalion The Wessex Regiment (Rifle Volunteers), after seeing service in Malaya, Cyprus, Swaziland, Libya, Germany, Ulster and home garrisons. He began painting military subjects in 1968 and since then has gained worldwide popularity as a military illustrator. Mike has also written and illustrated many books in the Osprey Military list. Mike Badrocke is one of Osprey's most highly respected and accomplished illustrators, notably in the field of precision 'cutaway' artwork, as exemplified in this volume. He has over the years produced quality artwork for numerous books, magazines and industry publications throughout the world, not only in the field of militaria, but also in the intricate and technically demanding sphere of aviation publishing.

"Provides good overall information on the Pz. Kpfw. III Broadly covers the development and characteristics, variants and combat usage of the tank from 1936 to 1944. A relatively inexpensive and readily available resource. Ideal for those interested in a general reference or just looking for some basic knowledge of the Pz. Kpfw. III." -Bill Plunk, "Armorama" (February 2008)


List of WWII Maybach engines

This is an incomplete list of gasoline engines designed by Maybach AG, manufactured by Maybach and other firms under licence, and fitted in various German tanks (fr:chars blindés, de:Panzerkampfwagen) and half-tracks before and during World War II. Until the mid 1930s, German military vehicle manufacturers could source their power plants from a variety of engine makers by October 1935 the design and manufacture of almost all tank and half-track engines was concentrated in one company, Maybach AG, located in Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance. [1]

The firm designed and made a wide range of 4, 6, and 12-cylinder engines from 2.5 to 23 litres these powered the basic chassis designs for approximately ten tank types (including tank hunters and assault guns), six half-track artillery tractor designs, plus two series of derived armoured personnel carriers. Maybach also designed a number of gearboxes fitted to these vehicles, made under licence by other manufacturers. Friedrichshafen was also home to the Zahnradfabrik (ZF) factory which made gearboxes for Panzer III, IV, Panther and Tiger tanks. Both Maybach and ZF (and Dornier) were originally subsidiaries of Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH, which also had a factory in the town.

Maybach used various combinations of factory letter codes (discussed below) which specified the particular ancillaries to be supplied with each engine variant: the same basic model could be fitted in a number of vehicles, according to the original manufacturer's design requirements. For example, the basic 3.8 and 4.2 litre straight-6 engines (the NL38 and HL42) fitted in various half-tracks could be supplied in at least 9 different configurations, although every single component was to be found in a single unified parts list. [2]

However, as the war progressed, a number of problems hampered the German armaments production effort. The factory's inability to manufacture enough complete engines as well as a huge range of spare parts, meant that there was often a lack of both. Conflicts between the civilian Reich Ministry of Armaments and Munitions and the German Army led to a failure to set up an adequate distribution system, and consequent severe shortages of serviceable combat vehicles. In April 1944 an Allied bombing raid put the Maybach factory out of action for several months, and destroyed the ZF gearbox factory.

By the end of the war Maybach had produced over 140,000 engines and 30,000 semi-automatic transmissions for the German Wehrmacht. [3]


Produktdetails

Einband Taschenbuch
Seitenzahl 48
Erscheinungsdatum 01.09.1999
Sprache Englisch
ISBN 978-1-85532-849-5

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M2/M3 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle 1983-95

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T-34-85 Medium Tank 1944-94

Band 21

Merkava Main Battle Tank MKS I, II & III

Band 22

Panther Variants 1942 45

Band 23

Challenger Main Battle Tank 1982-97

Band 25

Sdkfz 251 Half-Track 1939-45

Band 26

German Light Panzers 1932 42

Band 27

Panzerkampfwagen III Medium Tank 1936-44

Band 28

Panzerkampfwagen IV Medium Tank 1936 45

Band 29

German Armoured Cars and Reconnaissance Half-Tracks 1939 45

Band 33

M3 & M5 Stuart Light Tank 1940 45

Band 34

Sturmartillerie & Panzerjäger 1939-45


German Light Panzers 1932-1942 (Vanguard) by Perrett, Bryan (1986) Paperback

Dieses Buch eignet sich für einen kurzen Überblick über die gezeigten Baureihen, geht dabei jedoch nicht sehr in die Tiefe.

( beispielsweise wird als Panzer I Abart der Flakpanzer Iüberhaupt nicht erwähnt)

Die Zeichnungen sind ganz nett.

Auf der anderen Seite können in 46 Seiten nicht alle technischen Details reinpassen. Dafür gefällt mir die Beschreibung der taktischen Verwendung sehr gut.

Gesamtgesehen ein gelungenes Wert. 3 Sterne deshalb, weil die Technik etwas zu kurz kommt und nur eine Risszeichnung eines Panzer II enthalten ist.

I love the factual and historical books that are printed and distributed by Osprey Publishing.

That being said, I do not like the change in their binding process. I have many older publications by Osprey Publishing. They have the pages folded and sewn to provide book quality binding.

Unfortunately, things have changed. They now cut the pages and hold them together with glue. After a few reading the pages start falling out. I am very disappointed. I will no longer order Osprey Publishing books sight unseen. I need to inspect them to see if they have the newer binding and, if they do, I will NOT buy their book.


Watch the video: German Light Tanks: 1917 to 1945