Hagia Sophia, Istanbul

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul

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Aya Sophia

Aya Sophia (Bahasa Yunani: Ἁγία Σοφία) Hagia Sophia (bahasa Turki: Ayasofya bahasa Arab آيا صوفيا, berasal daripada perkataan Yunani: Ἁγία Σοφία, "Hikmah Suci" bahasa Latin: Sancta Sophia atau Sancta Sapientia) merupakan sebuah struktur bangunan muzium yang terletak di Istanbul, Turki. Bangunan ini sering dianggap sebagai sebuah bangunan teragung dan tercantik di dunia. Pada mulanya, Aya Sophia dibina sebagai sebuah katedral bagi penganut Kristian Ortodoks tetapi kemudian diubahsuai menjadi sebuah masjid oleh kerajaan Uthmaniyyah pada tahun 1453. Pemerintah republik Turki telah menjadikannya sebagai muzium bermula pada 1935 dan bertukar menjadi masjid semula pada 2020 atas ketetapan Presiden Turki. [1] [2]

Katedral Katholik Rom (1204–1261)
Masjid (1453–1931, 2020-kini)

Story of Hagia Irine

It is a young woman named Penelope. Her name was given to Hagia Irene Church . According to legend, when Constantine the Great rebuilt the city by making it the capital, he came to Constantinople like many Romans.

Penelope, a devout Christian, endeavors to introduce the Roman people to the Prophet Jesus . However, the pagan Romans who refuse to do this, torture the woman in order to deny the Virgin Mary and to be subject to Paganism. First, they throw her into a well full of snakes, but the snakes do not catch her during the night. Then they stone the woman by accusing her of witchcraft. Finally, they tie her to the horses and drag her for hours. When Penelope is not harmed by any of them, the Romans pay allegiance to her.

As a result, Emperor Constantine declared the young lady a saint and named St Hagia Irene, which means "Holy Peace", and built the Hagia Irene Church in her honor.

A forgery?

A Turkish association committed to making Hagia Sophia a mosque again has pressed Turkish courts several times in the last 15 years to annul Ataturk’s decree.

In the latest campaign, it told Turkey’s top court that Ataturk’s government did not have the right to overrule the wishes of Sultan Mehmet — even suggesting that the president’s signature on the document was forged.

A woman gestures in front of the Hagia Sophia or Ayasofya — after a court decision that paves the way for it to be converted from a museum back into a mosque — in Istanbul, Turkey, July 10, 2020. REUTERS/Murad Sezer

That argument was based on a discrepancy in Ataturk’s signature on the edict, passed around the same time that he assumed his surname, from his signature on subsequent documents.

Erdogan, who has championed Islam and religious observance during his 17-year rule, supported the Hagia Sophia campaign, saying Muslims should be able to pray there again and raised the issue — which is popular with many pious AKP-voting Turks — during local elections last year.

Turkish pollster Metropoll found that 44% of respondents believe Hagia Sophia was put on the agenda to divert voters’ attention from Turkey’s economic woes.

Hagia Sophia or Ayasofya, the Byzantine-era monument which is now a museum, is seen during a sunset in Istanbul, Turkey, March 11, 2019. REUTERS/Umit Bektas/Files

The pro-government Hurriyet newspaper reported last month that Erdogan had already ordered the status be changed, but that tourists should still be able to visit Hagia Sophia as a mosque and the issue would be handled sensitively.

Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia wani masallaci ne a kasar Turkiya. An gina Hagia Sophia ne tun farko a matsayin cocin kimanin shekaru 1,500 baya. An fara mayar da gini masallaci ne tun bayan mamayar da Daular Usmaniyya ta yi wa yankin, amma tun daga shekarun 1930 ta koma gidan tarihin da ba na wani addini ba. Shugabannin addinin kirista sun ta sukar matakin shugaban kasar Turkiyya Recep Tayyip Erdogan, haka ma Tarayyar Turai da UNESCO ba su ji dadin matakin ba.

Zanennika na mutum mutumk

Wani mutum mutumi da aka nuna waliyi Saint John Chrysostom

Wani zanen ma daga yan'uwa Fossati

Wasu ginshikai da akayi su da karafa da duwatsu na alfarma

Zanen cikin Hagia Sophia daga yaskar maizan John Singer Sargent, 1891

Cikin Hagia Sophia, yana nuna kayaiyaki na Musulunci a babbar Hasumayar (annotations).

Haghia Sofiya daga Adriaan Reland (1676–1718): Verhandeling van de godsdienst der Mahometaanen, 1719

Hagia Sophia lokacin tana masallaci wanda maizane Gaspare Fossati da Louis Haghe suka zana a 1852.

Hoton cikin Hagia Sophia (annotations).

hoto a tsakanin shekarar 1900, lokacin yana matsayin masallaci.

Fuskar Hexapterygon (mala'ika mai fukafukai shids) daga kudu maso gabas (hagu ta sama), (annotations).

19th-century marker of the tomb of Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, inside the Hagia Sophia

Ambigram 'ΝΙΨΟΝΑΝΟΜΗΜΑΤΑΜΗΜΟΝΑΝΟΨΙΝ ("Wanke zunubanka, ba iya fuskarka kawai ba")

VATICAN CITY (ChurchMilitant.com) - A Vatican representative is insisting that Turkey's conversion of Hagia Sophia to a mosque should not be seen as "Islamic aggression" even as President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan fired a shot across the Vatican's bow in an Islamic supremacist speech.

"It is the product of the same logic to demand the Vatican be converted into a museum and insist that Hagia Sophia remain as a museum," Erdoğan declared on Turkish television Monday after Turkey's top court annulled President Kemal Atatürk's 1934 decision to turn Hagia Sophia into a museum as part of his secularist reforms.

19th-century illustration of Hagia Sophia as a mosque

"Making Hagia Sophia a museum did not eliminate the ambitions of Christianity on Istanbul but on the contrary encouraged, provoked and excited them," Erdoğan contended.

In an address charged with nationalist and triumphalist rhetoric and punctuated with references to Islamic theology and history, Erdoğan hailed the "foundation charter" issued by Fatih Sultan Mehmet Khan, the conqueror of Constantinople, which turned Hagia Sophia from the world's grandest basilica into a mosque in 1453.

"May the eternal curse of Allah, the Prophet, the angels, all rulers and of all Muslims be upon him and them who change this foundation charter," Erdoğan imprecated. "Do not relieve the torment, do not look at their faces on the day of pilgrimage . The punishment of Allah is with them."

'Self-Profiling' by 'Partner in Dialogue'

Nevertheless, Jesuit priest Felix Körner, Consultor to the Vatican Commission for Religious Relations with Muslims, maintained the "reclassification" of Hagia Sophia as a mosque "should not be put down to current Islamic aggression."

"It is about an attempt at self-profiling" by President Erdoğan, Körner who teaches Islam at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, told Domradio.de.

Körner also suggested Christians "should actually be happy" that Hagia Sophia will once again be used for prayers after 85 years as a secular museum.

Most Muslims in Turkey see Christianity "not as an opponent, but as a partner in dialogue, as a sister religion," and many see through "the instrumentalization of religious questions for political purposes," Körner noted.

'Lion at the Door'

Speaking to Church Militant, Islamic historian Robert Spencer said: "Körner would do well to ponder the words of Erdoğan himself":

Today, Hagia Sophia is having another resurrection, many of which it has witnessed since its construction. The resurrection of Hagia Sophia heralds the liberation of the al-Aqsa Mosque. The resurrection of Hagia Sophia is the footsteps of the will of Muslims across the world to come out of the interregnum.

"That's not just 'self-profiling.' That's a declaration of coming aggression against Israel and an explicit grounding of his action regarding Hagia Sophia in his neo-Ottoman aspirations," he stressed.

Spencer asked: "What 'interregnum' does he mean? What interregnum are Muslims experiencing?"

The Ottoman caliphate was abolished in 1924 after waging jihad war against Christian Europe for centuries. Erdoğan wants to restore it, and that would involve, since warfare against unbelievers is mandated for the caliphate in Islamic law, the resumption of violent aggression against Christian Europe. Körner is looking at the lion at the door and insisting it's a house cat.

In his address, Erdoğan eulogized the Islamization of Hagia Sophia as "the strongest answer ever given to the brutal attacks against our symbols and values across the Islamic world."

"O magnificent temple! Do not worry, the grandchildren of Fatih will overthrow all the idols and convert you into a mosque," the radical Islamic president said, quoting Turkish poet Osman Yuksel Serdengecti, acknowledging that this day had arrived.

"This is the most honorable day that Islam has been looking forward to: Greek Constantinople has become Turkish Istanbul," the president panegyrized, quoting the poet Nâzım Hikmet.

"The conquest of Istanbul and the conversion of Hagia Sophia into a mosque are among the most glorious pages of our entire history," he bragged.

Fr. Felix Körner, S.J. at the Pontifical Gregorian University

'Symbol of Conquest'

The president described in detail the conquest of the basilica by Fatih Sultan Mehmet Khan, "who entered the city after conquering Istanbul on May 29, 1453, after a long siege and went directly to Hagia Sophia."

Fatih enters Hagia Sophia by giving assurance to the people who meet him about their lives and freedoms. The conqueror of Istanbul sews his flag as a symbol of conquest to the altar in the middle of Hagia Sophia. He throws an arrow towards the dome and reads the first adhan [call to prayer] himself. Thus, he registered his conquest. Then, in a suitable corner of the temple, he makes a prayer and performs two rak'ahs. With this, he shows that he turned Hagia Sophia into a mosque.

But Islamic historian Robert Spencer, in The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS, records how the Muslims halted the celebration of Orthros (morning prayer) and "killed the elderly and weak and led the rest off into slavery."

"When the slaughter and pillage was finished, Mehmet II ordered an Islamic scholar to mount the high pulpit of the Hagia Sophia and declare that there was no God but Allah, and Muhammad was his prophet," writes Spencer.

"The magnificent old church was turned into a mosque. Hundreds of other churches in Constantinople and elsewhere suffered the same fate. Millions of Christians joined the ranks of the dhimmis. Others were enslaved and many were killed," he notes.

The president ended by referring to the Islamic takeover of Hagia Sophia as a "second conquest" and a "new resurrection."

Will Christian icons be vandalized by Muslim iconoclasts?

Hagia Sophia's "minaret balconies will light up in honor of Allah and his prophet Muhammad and the whole world will think Fatih [Constantinople] has been resurrected," he said.

Popular Decision?

Meanwhile, the vicar apostolic of Anatolia, Bp. Paolo Bizzeti, told SIR news that the decision to convert the museum to a mosque "was not the whim of the president."

"About 70% of the Turkish population, according to the latest polls, approved this decision by President Erdoğan, a fact that must be taken into account," he said.

The prelate raised concerns about the preservation of treasured Christian mosaics in the building, observing that beyond the issue of Hagia Sophia, "the legal recognition of the Catholic Church" was also "at stake" in Turkey.

The Turkish Religious Affairs Directorate has confirmed that Christian icons and mosaics in Hagia Sophia would be covered by curtains or lasers when Muslims offer prayer five times a day.

Factbox: How Hagia Sophia's status changed over centuries of history

Istanbul: Friday prayers were held at Istanbul's Hagia Sophia for the first time since President Tayyip Erdogan declared the building a mosque once again.

It served as a Christian Byzantine cathedral for 900 years before Ottoman conquerors seized it.

Muslims prayed there until 1934 when it was turned into a museum. Then, this year, a top Turkish court ruled in favour of annulling that status, allowing Erdogan to change it back to a Muslim place of worship.

Here are some key facts about Hagia Sophia's history, the campaign to change its status, and statements by religious and political leaders.

Hagia Sophia, or 'Divine Wisdom' in Greek, was completed in 537 by Byzantine emperor Justinian.

The vast, domed structure overlooked the Golden Horn harbour and entrance to the Bosphorus from the heart of Constantinople. It was the centre of Orthodox Christianity and remained the world's largest church for centuries.

Hagia Sophia stayed under Byzantine control - except for a brief seizure by Crusaders in the 13th century - until the city was captured by the Muslim forces of the Ottoman Sultan, Mehmet the Conqueror, who converted it into a mosque.

The Ottomans built four minarets, covered Hagia Sophia's Christian icons and luminous gold mosaics, and installed huge black panels embellished with the names of God, the prophet Mohammad and Muslim caliphs in Arabic calligraphy.

In 1934 Turkey's first president, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, forging a secular republic out of the defeated Ottoman Empire, converted Hagia Sophia into a museum, now visited by millions of tourists every year.

In July 2020 a Turkish court annulled its museum status, paving the way for Erdogan to designate it a mosque. Its Christian frescoes and glittering mosaics adorning the dome and central hall will be concealed during Muslim prayer times, but remain on display at other times.

A Turkish association which was committed to making Hagia Sophia a mosque again pressed Turkish courts several times in the last 15 years to annul Ataturk's decree.

In the latest campaign, it told Turkey's top court that Ataturk's government did not have the right to overrule the wishes of Sultan Mehmet - even suggesting that the president's signature on the document was forged.

That argument was based on a discrepancy in Ataturk's signature on the edict, passed around the same time that he assumed his surname, from his signature on subsequent documents.

Erdogan, who has championed Islam and religious observance during his 17-year rule, supported the Hagia Sophia campaign, saying Muslims should be able to pray there again and raised the issue - which is popular with many pious AKP-voting Turks - during local elections last year.

Turkish pollster Metropoll found that 44% of respondents believe Hagia Sophia was put on the agenda to divert voters' attention from Turkey's economic woes.

Outside Turkey, the change has raised alarm and despair, but Turkey has said what Turkish people want is of most importance.

- Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew, spiritual head of 300 million Orthodox Christians, said altering the status of Hagia Sophia would fracture eastern and western worlds.

- In neighbouring Greece, an overwhelmingly Orthodox country, Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said: "This is a choice which offends all those who also recognise the monument as a World Heritage Site."

- A spokesman for the US State Department said the United States was disappointed by the decision but looked forward to hearing Turkey's plans for continued stewardship of the Hagia Sophia to ensure it remains accessible to all.

International concerns

Hagia Sophia was first constructed as a cathedral in the Christian Byzantine Empire but was converted into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

In 1935, in the early days of the modern secular Turkish state under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, it became a museum.

The organisation which brought the court case, the latest in a 16-year legal battle, said the Hagia Sophia was the property of the Ottoman leader who captured the city in 1453 and turned the already 900-year-old Byzantine church into a mosque.

Erdogan threw his weight behind the campaign to convert the building before local elections last year. He is due to speak shortly before 9pm (1800 GMT), his head of communications said.

In response to the ruling, the Russian Orthodox Church on Friday said the decision could lead to even greater divisions.

The United States, Russia and Greece, along with UNESCO, had expressed concerns ahead of the ruling.

UNESCO said its World Heritage Committee would review Hagia Sophia’s status, saying it was “regrettable that the Turkish decision was not the subject of dialog nor notification beforehand”.

“UNESCO calls on the Turkish authorities to open a dialog without delay in order to avoid a step back from the universal value of this exceptional heritage whose preservation will be reviewed by the World Heritage Committee in its next session,” the United Nation’s cultural body said in a statement.

Erdogan earlier this month rejected international criticism as an attack on Turkey’s sovereignty.

Byzantine Palaces in Istanbul

Apart from the monuments listed above, there are some other Byzantine artifacts that are about to disappear as they are turning into a ruin. These ruins are mostly the Byzantine palaces in Istanbul.

The two main Byzantine palaces in Istanbul were the Great Palace in Sultanahmet and the Palace of Blachernae in Golden Horn. You can see some of the breathtaking mosaics left from the Great Palace at Istanbul Mosaic Museum inside Arasta Bazaar in Sultanahmet.

And the Palace of Blachernae was a building where Byzantine emperors resided after the 10 th century. It was located on the corner where the Walls of Constantinople and Golden Horn met. Unfortunately, not much has remained from the Palace of Blachernae to the present day.

The Palace of the Porphyrogenitus, the only section remaining from the Blachernae, has recently been converted into a museum. You can visit this building, which is known as Tekfur Palace in Turkish, to study the late Byzantine architecture in Istanbul.

Byzantine Sites in Istanbul by Serhat Engul

About Serhat Engül

Hello explorer of Istanbul! This is Serhat Engul. I am a licensed TOUR GUIDE IN ISTANBUL. I offer PRIVATE HALF DAY TOUR which includes a visit to the Hagia Sophia, Blue Mosque, Hippodrome, Basilica Cistern and the Spice Bazaar. This is a fantastic option to see some of the ICONIC LANDMARKS in the whole of Istanbul and you’ll receive plenty of background information on each location to enlighten you. You may see the details of this tour on the HOMEPAGE of the blog. I wish you a wonderful trip!

Hagia Sophia (meaning “Holy Wisdom”) was originally a mosque in the Ottoman Empire. Later, with the first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great, it became a Byzantine church and in its time, but sadly, nothing has been preserved from this original fourth-century church.
Constantinople, son of Constantine, and Emperor Theodosius the Great built the second church, which he burned in 532

The present Hagia Sophia was erected by King Justin I between 532 and 537 and was built in Byzantine architecture. The dome of this church collapsed during an earthquake in 558 and was rebuilt in 563.

For 900 years, Hagia Sophia has been the seat of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople. In 1204, the Crusaders expelled the pastor of Constantinople from the country, and in his place, many stolen treasures are on display today in San Marcos, Venice.

In 1453, Sultan Mehmet conquered the city, and Hagia Sophia was buried in the main mosque of Istanbul.
In 1934, President Kemal secularized Hagia Sophia and renamed it the Isopia Museum (IAS) to help care for her with the cost of admission.

Hagia Sofia admission:

The Hagia Sophia project is a classic basilica, with a central domed rectangle and two semi-domes around the central dome. There are 40 lighting windows in the gallery under the dome.

In Byzantine times, Hajia Sofia was covered with mosaics, becoming the mosque of the Virgin Mary, Jesus, the saints, and emperors.
It was only with the restoration of 1847 that they were discovered under the plaster, but they are among the most famous upstairs galleries fully restored until 1931, including Dess with Crust Pentocater.

Wooden medals are preserved with Islamic calligraphy, suspended from the central dome.

The curiosity of Hagia Sofia:

For almost a thousand years, it was the largest church in the world, not even the Seville Tetrahedral.

Its amazing dome is 33 meters in diameter and 56 meters high.
It was only with the restoration of 1847 that they were discovered under plaster.

Watch the video: From Hagia Sophia to Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul. Civilisations - BBC Two


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