Battle of Arbedo, 30 June 1422

Battle of Arbedo, 30 June 1422

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Battle of Arbedo, 30 June 1422

One of the few defeats suffered by the Swiss in the fifteenth century. The Swiss Confederation was raiding south over the Alps, and gaining territory in the northern Po Valley. Their actions provoked Filipppo Maria Visconti, who sent his best generals against the invading Swiss. The Swiss were outnumbered two to one, and despite initial successes against an Italian cavalry charge, they were soon put under serious pressure by a combination of crossbow fire on the flanks, and columns of dismounted men at arms in the centre. The larger Milanese force began to push back the Swiss, who were only saved from total disaster by the appearance of a band of foragers, who the Milanese were convinced represented a major new force. When the Milanese force pulled back to reform, the Swiss fled the battlefield, having taken heavy casualties.

Battle of Arbedo

Old Confederation :

The Battle of Arbedo was held on June 30, 1422 between troops of the Old Confederation and the Duke Filippo Maria Visconti near the village of Arbedo in what is now the canton of Ticino in Switzerland . The battle was part of the so-called Ennetbirgische campaigns .

The people of Uri , who were supported by troops from Unterwaldner , Lucerne , Zug and Livin , were in charge of the Confederation . It was the first Swiss battle that was not fought as a liberation struggle against an attacker threatening the homeland, but aimed at regaining an area that the Confederates had acquired and lost outside their territory.

Events in History on June 30

1520 Spanish conquistadors are expelled from Tenochtitlan following an Aztec revolt against their rule under Hernán Cortés during "La Noche Triste" (the Night of Sadness). Many soldiers drown in the escape, and Aztec emperor Montezuma II dies in the struggle

Event of Interest

1548 Augsburg Interim issued by Charles V becomes law - orders Lutherans to return to Catholic practices with some concessions

Event of Interest

1559 King Henry II of France is seriously injured in a jousting match against Gabriel de Montgomery

    English and Dutch fleet reach Cadiz King Philip II moves to Escorial palace Annales Ecclesiastici (Scientific History of Catholicism) published

Event of Interest

1688 Whig Lords questions prince William III of Orange on Protestantism

Gregory Conquers Julius Caesar

1700 Gelderland goes on Gregorian calendar (tomorrow is 12/7/1700)

Event of Interest

1722 Hungarian Parliament condemns Emperor Charles VI's Pragmatic Sanctions

    Russian army occupies Danzig Pope Benedict XIV encyclical forbidding traffic in alms Philippines close all non-catholic Chinese restaurants Seven Years' War: The Battle of Domstadtl takes place Battle of Fort Recovery, Ohio Michigan Territory organizes US naval hero Stephen Decatur ends attacks by Algerian pirates Congress creates Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) Battle of Viervoet (Basotho-British war) French acrobat Charles Blondin is 1st to cross Niagara Falls on a tightrope

Event of Interest

1860 Famous debate on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution held at the Oxford University Museum and dominated by arguments between Thomas Henry Huxley and Bishop Samuel Wilberforce


The Early Bronze Age Hoard of Castione (from about 1800 BC.) contains material from north of the Alps. This large find indicates that the area was an important trading and transportation center during the Bronze Age. A Late Bronze Age settlement (from about 1300 BC.) is indicated by evidence of digging and traces of a number of cremation sites. The bulk of the finds come from the five groups of tombs at Castione, Castione-Bergamo, Cerinasca d'Arbedo, Molinazzo d'Arbedo and S. Paolo d'Arbedo, which are dated to the Hallstatt and Latène eras. The tombs were discovered at the end of the 19th Century during the construction of the Gotthard Railway, but probably were only partially excavated. Most of the finds are in Swiss National Museum. [3]

Starting in the 6th Century, both buried cremation urns and full body graves became common, though later only bodies were buried. The cremation ashes were buried in stone cists or pits, while bodies were buried in stone lined tombs under deck plates were made of gneiss. The dead were buried with their possessions (brooches, belts and jewelry). In the Latène era, isolated swords and helmets were added to the men's graves. The women's graves began to contain a number of amber objects, such as earrings and necklaces. Within the grave there were also containers, usually made of clay (pots, bowls, cups, cans), or occasionally bronze (Situlae or beak jugs). While these are a few imports from Etruria (8 beak jug, 1 bucket), most of the items were produced in the area. The large bronze hoard of Arbedo dates from the period around 450 BC. Over 4,000 items were discovered in Arbedo along with smelting furnaces and workshop waste. In addition to local products, there are numerous important Etruscan and northern Alpine objects. [3]

While a specific foundation date is still unknown, numerous grave groups close to a settlement on the valley floor date from the 6th Century. Together with the graves near Como and Castelletto Ticino-Golasecca, Arbedo-Castione formed the third center of the Golasecca culture. The settlement occupied a key position on major trade routes, as imports from Etruria and from north of the Alps indicate. The hoard of Arbedo shows that there were also workshops for the population. The graves at Arbedo also document the gallic invasion of the Po river valley around 390 BC. A few Roman era objects have been discovered at Castione and S. Paolo d'Arbedo. [3]

Several 7th Century graves have been discovered, one is at the Church of S. Paolo and six are in Castione. One of the graves contained a gold coin with the name of the Lombard King Agilulf. The graves surround the original church of S. Paolo and indicate that Lombards family had a presence in the valley and may have had a family chapel there. The building is close to the castrum of Bellinzona, where the Lombards had settled in 590. Additionally, it was right next to the old main road leading from Castelseprio at Varese on the Monte Ceneri to Lukmanier Pass. Throughout the Middle Ages Arbedo was an important transit point on the routes over several central Alpine passes. The natural barriers of the Ticino and Moesa provided excellent defenses for the village and made it a gateway to Bellinzona. However, its position led to frequent battles around and in Arbedo. The Battle of Arbedo in 1422 ended Swiss territorial expansion for some time. The 1449 Battle of Castione ended when the Condottiere Giovanni della Noce burned the village down and forced the armies of Uri and its allies to flee into the Val Mesolcina. [4]

Arbedo and Castione are first mentioned in 1195 as Erbedum. In 1237 it was mentioned as Castillionum. In a book of records for the city of Como from 1335 the village of Pitadino which might correspond to Castione. [5]

Two churches are mentioned at the bridge over the Moesa, though they no longer exist. The church of S. Christopher was built in 1284 and the church of S. Elena was from 1441. It is likely that they were destroyed when the river flooded. At the center of Arbedo was the church of Santa Maria, which became a parish church in 1583. [4]

A pillar-supported wooden bridge was built over the Moesa during the Middle Ages. The bridge maintenance was paid for by the village of the County of Bellinzona, which included Arbedo. The bridge was in a strategic position and in 1495 it was destroyed to slow the Swiss Confederation army. The army then turned and marched in the direction of Lombardy. Also important for trader traffic the stone bridge over the stream Traversagna, which was built in 1485. In the southern foreland, various canals were built which supplied water and power to mills and sawmills that were used throughout the region.

Today, Arbedo is a residential suburb of Bellinzona and the center of small and medium-sized industrial and service enterprises (quarries, gravel and sand extraction, storage). The Valle di Arbedo still has extensive forest resources though some of the trees were destroyed in a 1928 by a landslide on Mount Arbino. [4]

Arbedo-Castione has an area, as of 1997 [update] , of 21.28 square kilometers (8.22 sq mi). Of this area, 1.27 km 2 (0.49 sq mi) or 6.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.51 km 2 (6.37 sq mi) or 77.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.88 km 2 (0.73 sq mi) or 8.8% is settled (buildings or roads), 0.39 km 2 (0.15 sq mi) or 1.8% is either rivers or lakes and 0.86 km 2 (0.33 sq mi) or 4.0% is unproductive land.

Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 1.8% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 2.9% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.8%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.3% of the area. Out of the forested land, 74.5% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1.6% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 2.6% is used for growing crops and 2.9% is used for alpine pastures. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2% is in lakes and 1.6% is in rivers and streams. Of the unproductive areas, 3.1% is unproductive vegetation. [6]

The municipality is located in the Bellinzona district on the left bank of the Moesa river near the confluence with the Tessin river, south of Piz de Molinera. It consists of the villages of Arbedo and Castione.

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure a Lion passant Argent holding a Palm Branch Vert between three Mullets Or on a Bridge of the last in its Arch three barrulets engrailed. [7]

Arbedo-Castione has a population (as of December 2019 [update] ) of 5,057. [8] As of 2008 [update] , 29.5% of the population are foreign nationals. [9] Over the last 10 years (1997–2007) the population has changed at a rate of 3.6%. Most of the population (as of 2000 [update] ) speaks Italian(88.8%), with German being second most common ( 3.7%) and Serbo-Croatian being third ( 2.4%). [10]

Of the Swiss national languages (as of 2000 [update] ), 139 speak German, 43 people speak French and 3,313 people speak Italian. The remainder (234 people) speak another language. [11]

As of 2008 [update] , the gender distribution of the population was 49.7% male and 50.3% female. The population was made up of 1,411 Swiss men (33.6% of the population), and 678 (16.1%) non-Swiss men. There were 1,583 Swiss women (37.7%), and 528 (12.6%) non-Swiss women. [12]

In 2008 [update] there were 22 live births to Swiss citizens and 9 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were 22 deaths of Swiss citizens and 3 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens remained the same while the foreign population increased by 6. There was 1 Swiss man, 1 Swiss woman who emigrated from Switzerland to another country, 31 non-Swiss men who emigrated from Switzerland to another country and 15 non-Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland to another country. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources) was an increase of 62 and the non-Swiss population change was an increase of 53 people. This represents a population growth rate of 2.9%. [9]

The age distribution, as of 2009 [update] , in Arbedo-Castione is 387 children or 9.2% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 411 teenagers or 9.8% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 492 people or 11.7% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 549 people or 13.1% are between 30 and 39, 742 people or 17.7% are between 40 and 49, and 612 people or 14.6% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 500 people or 11.9% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 338 people or 8.0% are between 70 and 79, there are 169 people or 4.0% who are between 80 and 89. [12]

As of 2000 [update] , there were 1,452 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.5 persons per household. [10] In 2000 [update] there were 695 single family homes (or 74.3% of the total) out of a total of 935 inhabited buildings. There were 120 two family buildings (12.8%) and 87 multi-family buildings (9.3%). There were also 33 buildings in the municipality that were multipurpose buildings (used for both housing and commercial or another purpose). [13]

The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2008 [update] , was 0.91%. Of the apartments, a total of 1,431 apartments (88.4% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 107 apartments (6.6%) were seasonally occupied and 80 apartments (4.9%) were empty. [14] In 2000 [update] there were 1,618 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was the 4 room apartment of which there were 626. There were 62 single room apartments and 384 apartments with five or more rooms. [14] As of 2007 [update] , the construction rate of new housing units was 9.7 new units per 1000 residents. [10]

The historical population is given in the following table: [5]

year population
1801 420
1836 565
1850 801
1900 1,042
1950 1,335
2000 3,729

The Church of S. Paolo detta Chiesa Rossa is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance. [15]

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the FDP which received 30.47% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP (22.37%), the CVP (19.66%) and the Ticino League (14.3%). In the federal election, a total of 1,080 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 46.6%. [16]

In the 2007 [update] Ticino Gran Consiglio election, there were a total of 2,312 registered voters in Arbedo-Castione, of which 1,584 or 68.5% voted. 23 blank ballots and 3 null ballots were cast, leaving 1,558 valid ballots in the election. The most popular party was the PLRT which received 368 or 23.6% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SSI (with 365 or 23.4%), the PS (with 270 or 17.3%) and the LEGA (with 226 or 14.5%). [17]

In the 2007 [update] Ticino Consiglio di Stato election, there were 13 blank ballots and 6 null ballots, which left 1,566 valid ballots in the election. The most popular party was the PLRT which received 333 or 21.3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the PS (with 329 or 21.0%), the LEGA (with 314 or 20.1%) and the SSI (with 311 or 19.9%). [17]

As of 2007 [update] , Arbedo-Castione had an unemployment rate of 4.81%. As of 2005 [update] , there were 23 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 10 businesses involved in this sector. 393 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 42 businesses in this sector. 788 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 93 businesses in this sector. [10]

There were 1,767 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 38.5% of the workforce. In 2000 [update] , there were 439 workers who commuted into the municipality and 1,350 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 3.1 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. About 6.6% of the workforce coming into Arbedo-Castione are coming from outside Switzerland. [18]

Of the working population, 11.1% used public transportation to get to work, and 64.2% used a private car. [10]

As of 2009 [update] , there was one hotel in Arbedo-Castione. [19]

From the 2000 census [update] , 2,961 or 79.4% were Roman Catholic, while 156 or 4.2% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. There are 461 individuals (or about 12.36% of the population) who belong to another church (not listed on the census), and 151 individuals (or about 4.05% of the population) did not answer the question. [11]

The entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Arbedo-Castione about 58.1% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). [10]

In Arbedo-Castione there are a total of 682 students (as of 2009 [update] ). The Ticino education system provides up to three years of non-mandatory kindergarten and in Arbedo-Castione there are 126 children in kindergarten.

The primary school program lasts for five years and includes both a standard school and a special school. In the municipality, 163 students attend the standard primary schools and 15 students attend the special school. In the lower secondary school system, students either attend a two-year middle school followed by a two-year pre-apprenticeship or they attend a four-year program to prepare for higher education. There are 162 students in the two-year middle school and 1 in their pre-apprenticeship, while 73 students are in the four-year advanced program.

The upper secondary school includes several options, but at the end of the upper secondary program, a student will be prepared to enter a trade or to continue on to a university or college. In Ticino, vocational students may either attend school while working on their internship or apprenticeship (which takes three or four years) or may attend school followed by an internship or apprenticeship (which takes one year as a full-time student or one and a half to two years as a part-time student). [20] There are 35 vocational students who are attending school full-time and 92 who attend part-time.

The professional program lasts three years and prepares a student for a job in engineering, nursing, computer science, business, tourism and similar fields. There are 15 students in the professional program. [21]

As of 2000 [update] , there were 299 students in Arbedo-Castione who came from another municipality, while 165 residents attended schools outside the municipality. [18]

Arbedo-Castione is served by the Castione-Arbedo station, situated within the municipality. The station is on the Gotthard railway and the Ferrovia Mesolcinese tourist railway.

Battle of Arbedo, 30 June 1422 - History

MR500090 Museum Replicas

Blade Length: 31"
Blade Width: 2-3/4"
Overall Length: 39-1/2"

Blade Material: High carbon steel, wide tang construction

Handle Material: Steel guard and pommel. Grip is wood, wrapped with cord and then covered with leather.The 6" grip allows for one or two hand use.

Leather Scabbard Included

In Arbedo on June 22, 1422 the famous Milanese cavalry commander Carmagnola, along with Angelo de la Pergola, 6,000 horsemen and 4,000 footmen, attacked an army of 4,000 Swiss pikemen and halberdiers. As the battle raged on, a group of Swiss foragers wandered near the scene. Both Carmagnola and de la Pergola thought the foragers were another army and pulled back, allowing the Swiss to retire in good order. This bloody, rather inconclusive battle left a large percentage of Swiss dead, although Carmagnola's army actually lost more men.

We've named this beautiful type XVIIIa war sword after that battle at Arbedo, where either side would have carried it. The effective cutting blade tapers to a sharp, deadly point. The 6" grip allows for one or two hand use. High carbon steel blade. Steel guard and pommel. Grip is wood, wrapped with cord and then covered with leather. Wide tang construction. Leather scabbard.

Made by Windlass Steelcrafts®. Overall-39 1/2". Blade-31" long, 2 3/4" wide.

Original rests in the Metropolitan Museum and can also be seen in "Records Of The Medieval Sword", pg. 189 by Ewart Oakeshott. Circa 1350-1400.


In Arbedo on the 22nd June 1422, the famous Milanese cavalry commander Carmagnola, along with Angelo de la Pergola, 6,000 horsemen and 4,000 footmen, attacked an army of 4,000 Swiss pikemen and halberdiers. This was his first encounter with the Swiss, and his cavalry was stopped cold by the Swiss pikes and lost a large number of horses and men. He dismounted with his horsemen, and attacked again along with his footmen. Hard pressed by the superior number of Milanese troops, one Swiss group unsuccessfully tried to surrender. As the battle raged on, a group of Swiss foragers wandered near the scene. Both Carmagnola and de la Pergola thought the foragers were another army and pulled back, allowing the Swiss to retire in good order. This bloody, rather inconclusive battle left a large percentage of Swiss dead, although Carmagnola’s army actually lost more men.

Windlass Steelcraft's have named this beautiful type XVIIIa sword after that battle at Arbedo, where it could have been carried by either side. This is very effective cutting weapon that also has a sharp, deadly point. The 6" grip allows for one or two hand use. High carbon steel blade. Steel guard and pommel. Grip is wood, wrapped with cord and then covered with leather. Wide tang construction. A leather scabbard is included.

The canton of Schwyz is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne to the west and Lake Zürich in the north, centered on and named after the town of Schwyz.

The Federal Charter or Letter of Alliance is one of the earliest constitutional documents of Switzerland. A treaty of alliance from 1291 between the cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden, the Charter is one of a series of alliances from which the Old Swiss Confederacy emerged. In the 19th and 20th century, after the establishment of the Swiss federal state, the Charter became the founding document of Switzerland in the popular imagination.

Obwalden, also Obwald is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of seven municipalities and the seat of the government and parliament is in Sarnen. It is traditionally considered a "half-canton", the other half being Nidwalden.

The Old Swiss Confederacy began as a late medieval alliance between the communities of the valleys in the Central Alps, at the time part of the Holy Roman Empire, to facilitate the management of common interests such as free trade and to ensure the peace along the important trade routes through the mountains. The Hohenstaufen emperors had granted these valleys reichsfrei status in the early 13th century. As reichsfrei regions, the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden were under the direct authority of the emperor without any intermediate liege lords and thus were largely autonomous.

The Second War of Kappel was an armed conflict in 1531 between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy during the Reformation in Switzerland.

The Battle of Dornach was a battle fought on 22 July 1499 between the troops of Emperor Maximilian I and the Old Swiss Confederacy close to the Swiss village of Dornach. The battle turned into a decisive defeat for Maximilian, and concluded the Swabian War between the Swiss and the Swabian League.

The Pfaffenbrief is a contract dated to October 7, 1370, between six states of the Old Swiss Confederacy, Zürich, Lucerne, Zug, Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden.

The Rütlischwur is the legendary oath taken at the foundation of the Old Swiss Confederacy by the representatives of the three founding cantons, Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden, traditionally dated to 1291. It is named after the site of the oath taking, the Rütli, a meadow above Lake Uri near Seelisberg. Recorded in Swiss historiography from the 15th century, the oath is notably featured in the play William Tell by Friedrich Schiller (1804).

The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy was a loose confederation of independent small states within the Holy Roman Empire. It is the precursor of the modern state of Switzerland.

The Battle of Crevola was fought in the spring of 1487, between a marauding Swiss army (from the Valais and Lucerne) and troops from the Duchy of Milan, for the supremacy of the Val d'Ossola (Eschental).

The Bundeslied or Tellenlied is a patriotic song of the Old Swiss Confederacy. Its original composition dates to the Burgundian Wars period (1470s). The oldest extant manuscript text was written in 1501, the first publication in print dates to 1545. It consists of stanzas of six lines each, with a rhyming scheme of A-A-B-C-C-B. It is one of the oldest existing records of the legend of Swiss national hero William Tell.

Vogtei Rheintal was a condominium of the Old Swiss Confederacy from the 15th century until 1798. Its territory corresponded to the left banks of the Alpine Rhine between Hoher Kasten and Lake Constance, including the towns of Altstätten and Rheineck.

The Pact of Brunnen is a historical treaty between the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, concluded in Brunnen on 9 December 1315.

The transalpine campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy, known as Ennetbirgische Feldzüge "transmontane campaigns" in Swiss historiography, were military expeditions which resulted in the conquest of territories south of the Alps, corresponding more or less to the modern canton of Ticino, on the part of the Old Swiss Confederacy. These territories were known as ennetbirgische Vogteien or "transmontane bailiwicks".

The Saubannerzug was a military campaign of irregular Swiss forces during the Fasnacht period of the year 1477, in the aftermath of the Battle of Nancy. It consisted of disgruntled men-at-arms from Central Switzerland who moved towards Geneva to enforce the payment of a sum of 24,000 Gulden owed to the Old Swiss Confederacy as ransom to escape looting (Brandschatz).

The Raron affair was a 15th-century rebellion in the Valais against the power of a local noble family, the Raron family. The rebellion brought several cantons of the Swiss Confederation into conflict with each other and threatened a civil war in the Confederation. While Bern was initially successful, they were eventually forced to surrender most of their gains.

The Battle of Castione was fought between the Golden Ambrosian Republic (Milan) and the canton of Uri on 6 July 1449. The site of the battle is near that of the earlier Battle of Arbedo, both in the territory of the current-day municipality of Arbedo-Castione in the Swiss canton of Ticino.

The Toggenburg War, also known as the Second War of Villmergen or the Swiss Civil War of 1712, was a Swiss civil war during the Old Swiss Confederacy, that took place from 12 April until 11 August 1712. On the one hand there were the Catholic "inner cantons" and the Imperial Abbey of Saint Gall, on the other the Protestant cantons of Bern and Zürich as well as the abbatial subjects of Toggenburg. The conflict was simultaneously a religious war, a war for the hegemony within the Confederacy and an uprising of subjects. The war ended in a Protestant victory and toppled the balance of political power within the Confederacy.

Uri is a Swiss Talschaft and canton in the upper Reuss valley.

The Second Battle of Ulrichen was a battle fought in 1419 between the Old Swiss Confederacy lead by Bern and rebels from Valais near Ulrichen in the district of Goms in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Negotiations after the battle led to the end of the Raron affair and self-determination for Valais.

Battle of Arbedo

The Battle of Arbedo was fought on June 30, 1422, between the Duchy of Milan and the Swiss Confederation.

In 1419, Uri and Unterwalden bought the Bellinzona stronghold from the Sacco barons, but were unable to defend it adequately. When, in 1422, they rejected the Milanese proposal to buy back the fortified town, their troops stationed in Bellinzona were put to rout by the Visconti army under the command of Francesco Bussone, Count of Carmagnola. An attempt to reconquer the fortified area with the support of other confederates led to the battle at Arbedo, a village 3 km (1.9 mi) north of Bellinzona. The Count of Carmagnola led the forces of the Duchy of Milan against the Swiss and was victorious.

The Swiss were mainly equipped with halberds and had an initial success against the cavalry charge. Then Carmagnola brought his crossbowmen forward, while dismounting his cavalry. The dismounted men-at-arms used pikes which outreached the halberds. The Swiss were further under pressure by the crossbow fire on the flanks.

The Milanese force began to push back the Swiss, who were only saved from total disaster by the appearance of a band of foragers, whom the Milanese were convinced represented a major new force. When the Milanese force pulled back to reform, the Swiss fled the battlefield, having taken heavy casualties.

In a historiographical tradition of Zug, the bearer of the cantonal banner, Peter Kälin, was slain, and the banner was taken up by his son, who was slain in his turn. The banner was saved by one Hans Landwing, and was later lost against the French. [9]

The victory secured Bellinzona and the Leventina to the Duchy. In addition the Duchy gained back the Val d'Ossola, thus the Swiss lost all the territorial gains they had made. The defeat discouraged the Swiss expansionist intentions towards Lake Maggiore for a long time. It was the defeat at Arbedo that made the Swiss increase the number of pikemen.

What happend on 30. June in History

In our data base we found 305 events happened on 30. June:
&bull 350: Nepotianus, Roman ruler [category: Deaths]
&bull 350: Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the usurper Magnentius, in Rome. [category: Events]
&bull 1181: Hugh de Kevelioc, 5th Earl of Chester, English politician (b. 1147) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1224: Adolf of Osnabrück, German monk and bishop (b. 1185) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1286: John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey, English nobleman (d. 1347) [category: Births]

&bull 1364: Arnošt of Pardubice, Polish Archbishop of Prague (b. 1297) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1422: Battle of Arbedo between the duke of Milan and the Swiss cantons. [category: Events]
&bull 1470: Charles VIII of France (d. 1498) [category: Births]
&bull 1503: John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony (d. 1554) [category: Births]
&bull 1520: Spanish conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés fight their way out of Tenochtitlan. [category: Events]
&bull 1521: Spanish forces defeat a combined French and Navarrese army at the Battle of Noáin during the Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre. [category: Events]
&bull 1538: Charles II, Duke of Guelders (b. 1467) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1559: King Henry II of France is mortally wounded in a jousting match against Gabriel de Montgomery. [category: Events]
&bull 1579: Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, Ottoman statesman (b. 1506) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1588: Giovanni Maria Sabino, Italian composer, organist, and teacher (d. 1649) [category: Births]
&bull 1607: Caesar Baronius, Italian cardinal and historian (b. 1538) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1641: Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg, Irish general (d. 1719) [category: Births]
&bull 1651: The Deluge: Khmelnytsky Uprising – the Battle of Beresteczko ends with a Polish victory. [category: Events]
&bull 1660: William Oughtred, English mathematician (b. 1575) [category: Deaths]
&bull 1666: Alexander Brome, English poet (b. 1620) [category: Deaths]


350 Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, was defeated and killed by troops of the usurper Magnentius.

1422 Battle of Arbedo between the duke of Milan and the Swiss cantons.

1520 The Spaniards were expelled from Tenochtitlan.

1559 King Henry II of France was seriously injured in a jousting match against Gabriel de Montgomery.

1651 The Deluge: Khmelnytsky Uprising – the Battle of Beresteczko ended with a Polish victory.

1688 The Immortal Seven issued the Invitation to William, continuing the struggle for English independence from Rome.

1794 Native American forces under Blue Jacket attacked Fort Recovery.

1859 French acrobat Charles Blondin crossed Niagara Falls on a tightrope.

1860 The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

1864 U.S. President Abraham Lincoln granted Yosemite Valley to California for “public use, resort and recreation”.

1882 Charles J. Guiteau was hanged for the assassination of President James Garfield.

1886 The first transcontinental train trip across Canada departs from Montreal.

1905 Albert Einstein published the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”, in which he introduced special relativity.

1908 The Tunguska explosion in SIberia – commonly believed to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometres (3.1–6.2 mi) above the Earth’s surface.

1912 The Regina Cyclone hit Regina, Saskatchewan, killing 28.

1917 – Susan Hayward, American actress, was born (d. 1975).

1917 – Lena Horne, American singer and actress (d. 2010)

1934 The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler’s violent purge of his political rivals took place.

1935 The Senegalese Socialist Party held its first congress.

1936 Emperor Haile Selassie of Abbysinia appealled for aid to the League of Nations against Mussolini’s invasion of his country.

1939 The first edition of the New Zealand Listener was published.

1941 World War II: Operation Barbarossa – Germany captured Lviv, Ukraine.

1943 Florence Ballard, American singer (The Supremes). was born (d. 1976).

1944 Glenn Shorrock, Australian singer-songwriter (Little River Band) was born.

1944 World War II: The Battle of Cherbourg ended with the fall of the strategically valuable port to American forces.

1950 Leonard Whiting, British actor, was born.

1953 Hal Lindes, British-American musician (Dire Straits) was born.

1953 The first Chevrolet Corvette rolled off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.

1956 – A TWA Super Constellation and a United Airlines DC-7 (Flight 718) collided above the Grand Canyon killing all 128 on board the two planes.

1959 A United States Air Force F-100 Super Sabre from Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, crashed into a nearby elementary school, killing 11 students plus six residents from the local neighborhood.

1960 Murray Cook, Australian singer (The Wiggles) was born.

1960 Congo gained independence from Belgium.

1962 Julianne Regan, British singer and musician (All About Eve), was born.

1963 Ciaculli massacre: A car bomb, intended for Mafia boss Salvatore Greco “Ciaschiteddu”, killed seven police and military officers near Palermo.

1966 Mike Tyson, American boxer, was born.

1966 Marton Csokas, New Zealand actor, was born.

1969 Nigeria banned Red Cross aid to Biafra.

1971 The crew of the Soviet Soyuz 11 spacecraft were killed when their air supply escaped through a faulty valve.

1971 – Ohio ratified the 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, lowering the voting age to 18, thereby putting the amendment into effect.

1972 The first leap second was added to the UTC time system.

1985 Thirty-nine American hostages from a hijacked TWA jetliner were freed in Beirut after being held for 17 days.

1986 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states can outlaw homosexual acts between consenting adults.

1987 The Royal Canadian Mint introduced the $1 coin, known as the Loonie.

1990 East and West Germany merged their economies.

1991 32 miners were killed when a coal mine fire in the Donbass region of the Ukraine released toxic gas.

1992 Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher joined the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher.

1997 The United Kingdom transferred sovereignty over Hong Kong to China.

2009 Yemenia Flight 626 crashed off the coast of Moroni, Comoros killing 152 people and leaving 1 survivor.

2013 – – 19 firefighters died controlling a wildfire in Yarnell, Arizona.

June 30th

296 – St Marcellinus begins his reign as Catholic Pope
350 – Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the usurper Magnentius, in Rome.
833 – Louis, king of Austria, crowned
949 – Otto I the Great gives away bishopdpric of Utrecht “foreestrecht”
1294 – Jews are expelled from Berne, Switzerland
1371 – Arnold II of Horne chosen bishop of Utrecht
1397 – Denmark, Norway & Sweden sign Union of Kalmar under Queen Margaretha
1422 – Battle of Arbedo between the Duke of Milan and the Swiss cantons.
1520 – Spanish conquistadors under Hernán Cortés take gold from Aztecs
1520 – The Spaniards are expelled from Tenochtitlan.
1528 – Burgundian army occupies Utrecht
1548 – Emperor Charles V orders Catholics to become Lutherans
1559 – King Henry II of France is seriously injured in a jousting match against Gabriel de Montgomery.
1596 – English/Dutch fleet reach Cadiz
1598 – King Philip II moves to Escorial palace
1607 – Annales Ecclesiastici (Scientific History of Catholicism) published

King of Spain Philip II

1643 – Battle of Atherton Moor: Royalists beat parliamentary armies
1648 – French premier cardinal Mazarin calls Saint Louis Chamber together
1651 – The Deluge: Khmelnytsky Uprising – the Battle of Beresteczko ends with a Polish victory.
1688 – Whig Lords questions prince William III of Orange on Protestantism
1690 – Battle of Beachy Head: French under Tourville beat Dutch/English fleet
1700 – Gelderland goes on Gregorian calendar (tomorrow is 12/7/1700)
1722 – Hungarian Parliament condemns Emperor Karel VI’s Pragmatic Sanctions
1734 – Russian army occupies Danzig
1741 – Pope Benedict XIV encyclical forbidding traffic in alms
1755 – Philippines close all non-catholic Chinese restaurants
1758 – Seven Years’ War: The Battle of Domstadtl takes place.
1794 – Battle of Fort Recovery, Ohio
1815 – US naval hero Stephen Decatur ends attacks by Algerian pirates
1834 – Congress creates Indian Territory (now Oklahoma)
1851 – Battle of Viervoet (Basotho-British war)
1859 – Charles Blondin is 1st to cross Niagara Falls on a tightrope
1860 – The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History takes place.
1861 – CSS Sumter slips past USS Brooklyn blockade
1862 – Battle at Nelson’s Farm/Glendale/Frayser’s Farm, Virginia: Confederate assault attack. 6th day of 7 days battles US Civil War
1862 – Gustave Flaubert completes “Salammbo”
1863 – Battles in Hanover, Pennsylvania: 80 casualties
1863 – Dutch colony Suriname counts population of 33,000 slaves
1863 – Skirmish at Sporting Hill Pennsylvania
1865 – 8 alleged conspirators in assassination of Lincoln are found guilty
1870 – Ada Kepley becomes 1st female law college graduate
1871 – Guatemala revolts for agrarian reforms
1876 – Serbia declares war on Turkey
1879 – Ex-khedive Ismael Pasha leaves Cairo with train full stolen goods
1881 – Henry Highland Garnet named minister to Liberia
1893 – Excelsior diamond (blue-white 995 carats) discovered
1894 – Korea declares independence from China, asks for Japanese aid
1894 – London’s Tower Bridge opens
1896 – W S Hadaway patents electric stove
1898 – Winton Motor Carriage Company publishes the first known automobile ad in Scientific American using the headline “dispense with a horse.”
1899 – Jack Hearne takes a hat-trick Eng v Australia at Headingley
1900 – 4 German liners burn at Hobokon Docks NJ, 326 die
1902 – Cleveland is 1st AL team to hit 3 consecutive HRs in same inning
1905 – The crew of the Russian battleship “Georgei Pobiedonosets” mutinies in support of the “Potemkin”, which mutinied three days earlier
1905 – In Russia, the “Potemkin” arrives at Odessa, where sailors take the bodies of dead crewman ashore sailors join civilians in revolutionary actions of the � Revolution’
1905 – Conservative Australian Prime Minister George H. Reid is forced to resign and Alfred Deakin returns to power on July 5
1906 – John Hope becomes 1st black president of Morehouse College

Author Upton Sinclair

1906 – US Congress passes the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act these laws owe much to the expose journalism of the period (Upton Sinclair’s ‘The Jungle’ in particular)
1908 – Boston’s Cy Young’s 2nd no-hitter, beats NY Highlanders, 8-0
1908 – Tunguska Event: a giant fireball most likely caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet impacts in Siberia
1909 – Jack Johnson fights Tony Ross to no decision in 6 for hw boxing title
1910 – Russia absorbs Finland
1910 – 27th Wimbledon Womens Tennis: Dorothea Chambers beats D Boothby (6-2 6-2)
1910 – 34th Wimbledon Mens Tennis: Anthony Wilding beats A Gore (6-4 7-5 4-6 6-2)
1911 – Adolphe Messimy appointed French minister of War

MLB Pitcher Cy Young

1911 – US Assay Office in St Louis, Missouri closes
1913 – NY Giants score 10 in 10th to beat Phillies 11-1
1913 – To increase the peacetime strength of the German Army, the Reichstag pass the Army and Finance Bills, a massive defense buildup
1914 – Mahatma Gandhi’s 1st arrest after campaigning for Indian rights in South Africa
1916 – 22nd US Golf Open: Chick Evans shoots a 286 at Minikahda Club MINN
1916 – General Douglas Haig reports “The men are in splendid spirits”
1918 – Prominent US Socialist and Pacifist Eugene Debs is arrested on charges of denouncing the government, a violation of the Espionage Act of 1917
1921 – The South African Reserve Bank is established.
1923 – New Zealand claims Ross Dependency in Antarctica
1924 – England score 2-503 in day’s play v South Africa at Lord’s

Pacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma Gandhi

1925 – Charles Jenkins is granted the U.S. patent for Transmitting Pictures over Wireless (early television)
1927 – Augusto Cesar Sandino issues his Manifesto Politico
1927 – US Assay Office in Deadwood, South Dakota closes
1928 – Radio Service Bulletin lists radio stations call signs that are to be changed to conform with international standards
1929 – 33rd US Golf Open: Bobby Jones shoots a 294 at Winged Foot CC NY
1930 – 1st round-the-world radio broadcast Schenectady NY
1930 – Don Bradman scores 254 for Australia at Lord’s v England, 320 mins, 25 fours
1933 – 50,000 demonstrate in Antwerp against fascism/war
1933 – Card’s Dizzy Dean strikes out 17 Cubs to win 8-2
1933 – US Assay Offices in Helena Mon, Boise Id & Salt Lake City Utah closes
1934 – “Night of Long Knives” – Hitler stages bloody purge of Nazi party

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler

1934 – French Equatorial Africa constituted a single administrative unit
1934 – NFL’s Portsmouth Spartans become Detroit Lions
1935 – Danno O’Mahoney beats Ed George in Boston, to become wrestling champ
1935 – The Senegalese Socialist Party holds its first congress.
1936 – 40 hour work week law approved for US federal employees
1936 – Haile Selassie asks League of Nations for sanctions against Italy
1936 – Margaret Mitchell’s novel “Gone with the Wind” published
1938 – Superman 1st appears in DC Comics’ Action Comics Series issue #1
1938 – Final game at Phila’s Baker Bowl, Giants beat Phils 14-1
1939 – Heinkel He 176 rocket plane flies for 1st time, at Peenemunde
1940 – “Brenda Starr” cartoon strip, by Dale Messick, 1st appears
1940 – 58 U-boats (284,000 ton) sunk this month
1940 – US Fish & Wildlife Service forms
1940 – German troops begin the invasion of the undefended Channel Islands.

Author Margaret Mitchell

1941 – 61 U-boats (310,000 ton) sunk this month
1941 – Pro-Nazi group declares Ukraine independence
1941 – World War II: Operation Barbarossa – Germany captures Lviv, Ukraine.
1942 – 144 U boats (700,000 ton) sunk this month
1942 – Col-gen Von Paul’s 6th Army enters Ukraine
1942 – US Mint in New Orleans ceases operation
1942 – US bombs Celebes & Timor
1943 – Gen MacArthur begins Operation Cartwheel (island-hopping)
1944 – Allies land on Vogelkop, New Guinea
1944 – French Cotentin Peninsula in allied hands
1944 – Universal strike against Nazi terror in Copenhagen
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Cherbourg ends with the fall of the strategically valuable port to American forces.

WW2 General Douglas MacArthur

1945 – 17-day newspaper strike in NY begins
1948 – Cleve Indian Bob Lemon no-hits Detroit Tigers, 2-0
1948 – Last British troops leave Israel
1948 – Transistor as a substitute for valves announced (Bell Labs)
1949 – Dutch troops evacuate Jakarta
1950 – US Gen MacArthur visits front in South Korea/asks for US troops
1951 – “Victor Borge Show” last airs on NBC-TV
1951 – NAACP begins attack on school segregation & discrimination
1952 – “Guiding Light” soap opera moves from radio to TV
1952 – Hussein Sirri Pasha forms Egyptian government
1953 – 1st Chevrolet Corvette manufactured
1954 – Largest check: Internal US Treasury check at $4,176,969,623.57
1954 – Yank pitcher Tom Morgan ties record by hitting 3 batters in 1 inning This was also Bobby Brown’s last game he retired to become a doctor
1955 – “Johnny Carson Show” debuts on CBS-TV
1956 – “Pipe Dream” closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 245 performances
1956 – “Shangri-La” closes at Winter Garden Theater NYC after 21 performances

Marxist Revolutionary and Russian Leader Vladimir Lenin

1956 – Lenin’s politics testament (1923) published in Moscow
1956 – United DC-7 & TWA collide over Grand Canyon killing 128
1958 – “No Chemise, Please” by Gerry Grenahan peaks at #24
1958 – Dutch government of Drees ends obligatory dismissal of married teachers
1959 – During a game in Wrigley Field, 2 balls were in play at same time
1960 – US stops sugar import from Cuba
1960 – Zaire (formerly Belgian Congo) declares independence from Belgium
1961 – Buddy Rogers beats Pat O’Conner in Chicago, to become NWA champ
1961 – Explorer (12) fails to reach Earth orbit
1962 – 17th US Women’s Open Golf Championship won by Murle Lindstrom
1962 – French Foreign Legion leaves Algeria
1962 – LA Dodger Sandy Koufax no-hits NY Mets, 5-0
1962 – Premier Ben Khedda disbands Algerian Liberation Army fighters
1962 – Rwanda & Burundi become independent
1963 – Cardinal Montini elected Pope Paul VI, 262nd head of RC Church

LPGA Golfer Kathy Whitworth

1963 – Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Carvel Ladies Golf Open
1963 – Ciaculli massacre: A car bomb, intended for Mafia boss Salvatore Greco, kills seven police and military officers near Palermo.
1963 – International Labour Organisation excludes South Africa from its two-day meeting because of its apartheid policies
1964 – Centaur 3 launch vehicle fails to make Earth orbit
1964 – Last UN troops leave Congo
1965 – NFL grants Atlanta Falcons a franchise
1966 – Beatles land in Tokyo for a concert tour
1966 – Leopoldville Congo is renamed Kinshasa
1966 – Richard Helms promoted from deputy director to 8th director of US Central Intelligence Agency
1966 – Test cricket debut of Derek Underwood, v WI Trent Bridge, wicketless
1966 – Vice Adm William F Raborn Jr, USN, ends term as 7th director of CIA

Astronaut Robert Henry Lawrence, Jr.

1967 – Robert Henry Lawrence, Jr. named 1st black astronaut
1967 – Moise Tsjombe kidnapped to Algeria
1967 – Phillies Cookie Rojas pitches, plays 9th position since joining Phils
1968 – East German Communist Party leader Walter Ulbricht receives “Order of October Revolution”
1968 – Gaullists win French parliamentary election, 358 of 458 seats
1968 – Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Lady Carling Golf Open
1969 – Derek Clayton of Australia sets Marathon record at 2:08:34
1969 – Spain cedes Ifni to Morocco
1969 – In South Africa, General Laws Amendment Bill is passed the Bill contains far-reaching provisions and restrictions affecting the administration of justice and the disclosure of evidence
1970 – Cincinnati’s Riverfront Stadium opens, Braves beat Reds 8-2
1971 – Ohio becomes 38th state to approve of lower voting age to 18, thus ratifying 26th amendment
1972 – One leap second is added to the UTC time system also 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985
1972 – Cincinnati Reds are 11 games back in NL, & go on to win pennant
1972 – Ulster Defence Association (UDA) begin to organise its own ‘no-go’ areas (this is a response to the continuation of Republican ‘no-go’ areas and fears about concessions to the IRA)
1973 – “Burns & Schreiber Comedy Hour” TV Variety debut on ABC
1973 – Biggest US tanker “Brooklyn” christened (230,000 ton)
1973 – Observers aboard Concorde jet observe 72-min solar eclipse
1974 – 2nd du Maurier Golf Classic (Peter Jackson Classic): Carole Jo Skala
1974 – Petty thief Peter Leonard sets fire to cover burglary that torches “Gulliver’s” nightclub killing 24 (Port Chester NY)
1974 – Soviet dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov defects to west
1975 – Bundy victim Shelley Robertson disappears in Colorado
1975 – Heavyweight Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Bugner in Malaysia
1975 – University of California reports galaxy 3C123 at 8 billion light years distance
1976 – John Walker of NZ sets record for 2000 m, 4:51.4

39th US President Jimmy Carter

1977 – Jimmy Carter cans B-1A bomber later “B-1’s the B-52”
1977 – Marvel Comics publish “Kiss book” tributing rock group Kiss
1977 – US Railway Post Office final train run (NY to Wash DC)
1977 – Yankee DH Cliff Johnson hit 3 consecutive HRs in Toronto
1978 – Giants’ Willie McCovey becomes 12th to hit 500 HRs
1978 – Larry Doby becomes manager of Chicago White Sox
1979 – “Got To Go Disco” closes at Minskoff Theater NYC after 8 performances
1979 – Johnny Rotten & Joan Collins appear together on BBC TV’s Juke Box Jury
1980 – West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt visits Moscow
1981 – China’s Communist Party condemns late Mao Zedong’s policy
1981 – Zwelakhe Sisulu, President of the Black Media Workers Association of South Africa, is detained
1982 – “Lena Horne: Lady, Music” closes at Nederlander NYC after 333 perfs
1982 – Federal Equal Rights Amendment fails 3 states short of ratification
1982 – Orbiter Challenger (OV-099) rolled out at Palmdale
1982 – NJ NHL franchise officially named Devils by fan balloting, runner-up names are Blades, Meadowlanders & Americans
1984 – Failed coup by cocaine growers in Bolivia
1984 – Last sixpence minted in Great-Britain (in use since 1551)
1984 – Longest pro football game, LA Express beats Mich Panthers 27-21 in USFL playoffs, games lasts 93 minutes 33 seconds

Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Trudeau

1984 – Pierre Trudeau officially steps down as Prime Minister of Canada after serving two separate terms for a total of 15 years
1985 – “The King & I” closes at Broadway Theater NYC after 191 performances
1985 – 39 remaining hostages from Flight 847 are freed in Beirut
1985 – Juli Inkster wins LPGA Lady Keystone Golf Open
1985 – LA Dodger Pedro Gonzalez sets NL record of 15 HRs in June
1986 – Georgia sodomy law upheld by US Supreme Court (5-4)
1987 – Emmy 14th Daytime Award presentation – Susan Lucci loses for 8th time
1987 – Patrik Sjoberg of Sweden set a new world record in high jump
1987 – The Royal Canadian Mint introduces the $1 coin, known as the Loonie.
1988 – “Sledge Hammer!” last aires on ABC-TV
1988 – Brooklyn dedicates a bus depot honoring Jackie Gleason
1988 – Chicago agrees to build a new stadium so White Sox won’t move to Fla
1988 – French archbishop Marcel Lefebvre is excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church.
1989 – “Les Miserables” opens at Theatre Muzyczyny, Gdynia
1989 – US Attorney General Thornburgh orders Joseph Doherty deported to UK
1989 – Congressman Lukins found guilty of having sex with a 16 year old girl
1989 – NASA closes down tracking stations in Santiago, Chile & Guam
1989 – NY State Legislature passes Staten Island secession bill
1989 – Sudan suspends interim constitution following coup
1990 – East & West Germany merge their economies

LPGA Golfer Meg Mallon

1991 – 37th Mazda LPGA Championship won by Meg Mallon
1991 – South Africa Government repeal the 1913 Native Land Act, an important part of the system of Apartheid (Racially Based Land Measures Act)
1992 – 1st pay bathrooms in US open: 25 cents (NYC)
1992 – Fidel Ramos installed as president of Philippines
1992 – Total solar eclipse in Uruguay (5m21s)
1992 – Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher joins the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven.
1992 – South African ANC President Nelson Mandela meets with UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali at Dakar
1993 – “Les Miserables” opens at Point Theatre, Dublin
1993 – Richard Jacobs announces Chief Wahoo will go to Jacobs Field
1994 – Airbus A330 crash at Toulouse France (7 killed)

Anti-apartheid activist and South African President Nelson Mandela

1994 – Giants outfielder Darren Lewis errors after record 392 flawless games
1994 – Pre-trial hearings open in LA against OJ Simpson
1994 – US Ice Skating Federation bars Tonya Harding for life
1995 – Indians’ Eddie Murray, is 20th to reach 3,000 hits
1995 – Exxon signs a $15.2-billion deal to develop oil and gas fields near Russia’s Sakhalin Island
1996 – “Buried Child” closes at Brook Atkinson Theater NYC after 77 perfs
1996 – “Moon Over Buffalo” closes at Martin Beck Theater NYC after 308 perfs
1996 – “State Fair” closes at Music Box Theater NYC after 118 performances
1996 – Caroline Frolic (Miss Ontario), crowned Miss Renaissance USA
1996 – Dottie Pepper wins ShopRite LPGA Golf Classic
1997 – Leap Second to synchronize atomic clocks
1998 – Sega Channel, cable’s 1st on-demand video game service, closes down
2001 – ENI of Italy signs a $550 million contract to develop Iran’s Darquain field, expected to produce 160,000 barrels of petroleum per day

MLB First Baseman Eddie Murray

2002 – FIFA World Cup: Brazil beats Germany 2-0 for football’s 17th World Cup in Yokohama
2004 – “Spider-Man 2” directed by Sam Raimi and starring Toby Maguire andKirsten Dunst is released
2005 – Spain legalizes same-sex marriage.
2007 – A car crashes into Glasgow International Airport in Scotland, believed to be a terrorist attack.
2009 – Yemenia Flight 626 crashes off the coast of Moroni, Comoros killing 152 people and leaving 1 survivor
2009 – Turkey records its fastest contraction of 13.8% in the first quarter of 2009 compared to 2008, leading the country into recession this is Turkey’s biggest economic slump since 1945
2012 – 30 people attending a funeral in Zamalka, Syria, are killed on a day that saw 83 civilian deaths

Actress Kirsten Dunst

2012 – Mid-Atlantic storms in the United States kill 13 and leave millions without power in Ohio, Virginia, Maryland and the District of Columbia.
2012 – Mohamed Morsi is sworn in as President of Egypt
2013 – 30 people are killed after a fuel truck explodes in Kampala, Uganda
2013 – 19 fire fighters are killed controlling a wildfire in Yarnell, Arizona
2014 – Australian entertainer Rolf Harris is convicted of indecent assault in London, England
2014 – The corpses of the 3 Israeli teenagers kidnapped in the West Bank earlier in month are found


1286 – John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey, English politician (d. 1347)
1468 – Johan, the Standvastige, monarch of Saxon
1470 – Charles VIII, King of France (1483-98), invaded Italy
1503 – Johan Frederik, elector of Saxon (1532-47)
1641 – Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg, Irish general (d. 1719)
1669 – Mauritius Vogt, composer
1685 – Dominikus Zimmermann, German architect/painter (Liebfrauenkirche)
1685 – John Gay, British writer (d. 1732)
1722 – Jiri Antonin Benda, composer
1723 – Christian Ernst Graf, composer
1743 – Niels Schiorring, composer
1748 – Jacques D “comte” Cassini, French astronomer
1755 – Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras, French politician (d. 1829)
1768 – Elizabeth Kortright Monroe, 1st lady (1817-25)
1789 – E J Horace Vernet, French painter
1791 – Félix Savart, French surgeon/physicist (law of Biot & Savart)
1803 – Thomas Lovell Beddoes, English poet
1807 – Friedrich T Vischer, German philosopher/writer (Auch einer)
1810 – Stanko Vraz, [Jakob Frass], Slovenian/Croatian poet (illyrism)
1817 – Joseph D Hooker, British botanist
1818 – Edward John Hopkins, composer
1819 – William A Wheeler, (R) 19th VP (1877-81)
1823 – Hendrik Jan Schimmel, Dutch writer/dramatist (2 Tudors)
1823 – Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, Indian industrialist (d. 1901)
1837 – Stephen D Ramseur, youngest West Pointer to be Maj Gen
1843 – Ernest Mason Satow, British diplomat (d. 1929)
1846 – Ricardo Drigo, composer
1847 – Jacob T Cremer, min of Colonies/pres (Dutch Trading Comp)
1856 – Gerrit Kalff, writer (history of Dutch writers)
1858 – Andre Antoine, French stage manager (Theatre Libre) [or 7/31]
1860 – Gyula Andressy Jr, Hungarian minister of Foreign affairs (1918-20)
1868 – C V France, Bradford England, actor (Skin Game, Adventure in Blackmail)
1879 – Walter Hampden, Brooklyn New York, American actor (Five Fingers, Hunchback of Notre Dame)
1884 – Georges Duhamel, French author (d. 1966)
1890 – Gertrude McCoy, Sugar Valley GA, silent screen actress (Blue Bird)
1890 – Horace Chapman, cricketer (leg-spin all-rounder for S Afr in 2 Tests)
1891 – Man Mountain Dean, American professional wrestler (d. 1953)
1891 – Ed “Strangler” Lewis, American professional wrestler (d. 1966)
1892 – Laszlo Lajtha, composer
1892 – Pierre Blanchar, Philippeville Algeria, actor (Magnificent Sinner)
1892 – Oswald Pohl, German Nazi leader (d. 1951)
1893 – Harold/Joseph Laski, English economist/Labour leader (1945-..)
1893 – Walter Ulbricht, president German DR
1894 – Gavrilo Princip, Bosnian assassin (arch duke Ferdinand)
1896 – Wilfred Pelletier, Montreal Canada, conductor (Voice of Firestone)
1898 – George Chandler, Waukegan Ill, actor (Lassie)
1899 – Frantisek Tomasek, bishop of Prague/cardinal
1899 – Madge Bellamy [Margaret Derden Philpott], Hillsboro, Texas, American actress (White Zombie, The Iron Horse)

Bank Robber Willie Sutton(1901)

1901 – Willie Sutton, Brooklyn New York, American bank robber
1904 – Glenda Farrell, Enid OK, actress (Golddiggers of 1935)
1905 – Nestor Paiva, actor (Comanche, Fear, Tarantula, Killer Ape), born in Fresno, California
1906 – Ralph Allen, English footballer (d. 1981)
1906 – Anthony Mann, American film actor and director (d. 1967)
1907 – Roman Shukhevych, Ukrainian politician (d. 1950)
1908 – Charles Camproux, French linguistic/author (Bestiari)
1908 – Lucino Tinio Sacramento, composer
1908 – Monica Maurice, industrialist
1908 – Winston Graham, British writer (d. 2003)
1909 – Juan Bosch, poet/pres of Dominican Republic (1962-63)
1911 – Czeslaw Milosz, Polish/American writer (Bells in Winter, Nobel 1980)
1911 – Virginia Smith, (Rep-R-NB, 1975- )
1912 – Dan Reeves, NFL team owner (Cleveland/LA Rams)
1912 – Kenneth Jameson, art educator
1912 – Madhaviah Krishnan, naturalist
1912 – [J] Tibor de Machula, Hungarian/Dutch cellist
1912 – Ludwig Bölkow, German aeronautical engineer (d. 2003)
1913 – Harry Wismer, Port Huron Mich, AFL owner (NY Titans)
1913 – Alfonso López Michelsen, 32nd Colombian President (d. 2007)
1914 – David Wayne, actor (Adam’s Rib, Andromeda Strain, 3 Faces of Eve)
1914 – Natko Devcic, composer
1914 – Francisco da Costa Gomes, 16th President of Portugal (d. 2001)
1915 – Charles Rowe, cricketer (scored a pair in only Test (NZ v Aust 1946))
1917 – Lena Horne, Brooklyn New York, American actress/singer (Stormy Weather, Wiz)
1917 – Robert Vandekerckhove, Belgian politician
1917 – Susan Hayward, Flatbush Bkln, actress (I Want to Live, Tulsa)
1918 – Stuart Foster, Binghamton NY, singer (Galen Drake Show)
1919 – Lee Krieger, MD, actor (Clambake, One Way Wahini)
1919 – Ed Yost, American inventor (d. 2007)
1920 – Sam Moskowitz, SF fandom historian
1920 – Zeno Colo, Italy, downhill skier (Olympic-gold-1952)
1921 – Gordon Reynolds, musician
1925 – Dorothy Malone, actress (Peyton Place)
1925 – Jim Levitch, horse trainer
1925 – Micheline Lannoy, Belgium, figure skating pairs (Olympic-gold-1948)
1925 – Will Gay Bottje, composer
1926 – Paul Berg, Nobel Prize laureate
1927 – Harvey Vernon, Flint Mich, actor (Jasper-Carter Country)
1927 – James Goldman, American screenwriter/playwright (The Lion in Winter, They Might Be Giants), born in Chicago, Illinois
1927 – Joseph R Skeen, (Rep-R-New Mexico, 1981- )
1928 – Frank Ulrich Marcus, playwright/critic
1929 – Alexander Kelly, pianist/teacher
1930 – Doyle Holly, comedian/country performer (Buckaroos)
1930 – June Valli, Bronx NY, singer (Your Hit Parade)
1930 – Mac Benson, horse trainer
1930 – Nikolai Karetnikov, composer
1931 – James Loughran, British conductor
1931 – Johannes Gruijters, Dutch mayor (D66-Lelystad)
1931 – June Thorburn, Kashmir India, actress (Touch & Go, Children Galore)
1931 – Bert Eriksson, Flemish neo-Nazi (d. 2005)
1932 – Martin Mailman, composer
1933 – Mike J K Smith, cricketer (England captain mid-60s)
1933 – Lea Massari, Italian actress
1934 – Harry Blackstone Jr, magician (Blackstone Book of Magic & Illusion)
1936 – Dave Van Ronk, rocker/actor (Caffe Lena)
1936 – Nancy Dussault, Pensacola Fla, actress (Muriel-Too Close for Comfort)
1936 – Pauls Dambis, composer
1936 – Tony Musante, Bridgeport Ct, actor (David Toma-Toma, Nowhere to Hide), (d. 2013)
1938 – Billy Mills, Pine Ridge SD, 10k (Olympics-gold-64)
1938 – Chris Hinze, Dutch flutist (Vivat Vivaldi)
1938 – William Mervin Mills, Pine Ridge SD, 10K runner (Olympic-gold-64)
1938 – Apostolos Nikolaidis, Greek singer (d. 1999)
1939 – Lindembergue Cardoso, composer
1940 – Mark Spoelstra, American folk singer (d. 2007)
1941 – John Jameson, cricketer (England batsman, 465 p/ship with Kanhai)
1941 – Larry Hall, rocker (Tape Heads)
1941 – Micki Grant, composer
1941 – Mike Leander Farr, record producer
1941 – Peter Pollock, cricketer (bro of Graeme/father of Shaun, S Af quickie)
1942 – Robert Ballard, explorer/geologist/author/discoverer (Titanic in 1985)
1943 – Florence Ballard, rocker (Supremes), born in Detroit, Michigan
1944 – Glenn Shorrock, Australian rock vocalist (Little River Band), born in Sydney, New South Wales
1944 – Ron Swoboda, baseball outfielder/sportscaster (NY Yankees, NY Mets)
1944 – Raymond Moody, American parapsychologist
1946 – Billy Brown, rock vocalist (Ray, Goodman, Brown)
1947 – Jasper van ‘t Hof, Dutch jazz pianist (Live in Montreux)
1947 – Yuri Petrovich Sheffer, Russian cosmonaut
1949 – Andrew Scott, Wales, rock guitarist (Sweet)
1949 – Bùi Thanh Liêm, Hanoi. Vietnamese cosmonaut (d. 1981)
1949 – Eric Goetz, American shipbuilder (America’s Cup 1995), born in NYC, New York
1950 – Donna Jean Willmott, Akron Ohio, FALN member (FBI most wanted)
1950 – Pablo Castillo, jockey
1951 – Andre Hazes, Dutch barkeeper/singer (We Love Orange)
1951 – Stanley Clarke, Phila, rock bassist (New Barbarians-Find Out Hideaway)
1951 – Stephen S Oswald, astronaut (STS 42, 56, 67), born in Seattle, Washington
1952 – Athanassios S. Fokas, Greek mathematician
1952 – David Garrison, Broadway and television actor
1953 – Hal Lindes, Monterey CA, rocker (Dire Straits)
1954 – Bryn B Burrows, rock drummer (Fabulous Poodles)
1954 – Ken Olin, actor (Thirtysomething, Det Quinn-EZ Street), born in Chicago, Illinois
1954 – Pierre Charles, Prime Minister of Dominica (d. 2004)
1955 – Mark MacDonald, horse trainer
1956 – Adrian Wright, Sheffield, rock vocalist (Human League-Only Human)
1956 – David Alan Grier, comedian (In Living Color, Boomerang)
1956 – Ronald Winans, gospel singer (Winans)
1957 – Sarah McGuire, Springfield IL, LPGA golfer (1983 United Va Bank-5th)
1957 – Sterling Marlin, American race car driver (NASCAR)
1958 – Esa-Pekka Salonen, Helsinki Finland, conductor (Giro)
1959 – Gina Goldberg, playmate (May, 1981)
1959 – Michel Dion, Quebec City Canada, Rifle shooter (Olympics-24-92, 96)
1959 – Stephanie Farwig, Milwaukee WI, golfer (1994 LPGA Corning Classic-2nd)
1959 – Vincent D’Onofrio, American actor
1960 – Randy Ladouceur, Brockville, NHL defenseman (Anaheim Mighty Ducks)
1960 – Murray Cook, Australian children’s singer (The Wiggles)
1961 – Karolyn Kirby, US beach volleyball player (Goodwill-gold-94)
1962 – Julianne Regan, rocker (All About Eve-All About Scarlet)
1962 – Vladimir Mikolaevich Dezhurov, Mordovia, astronaut (Mir 18, STS-71)
1962 – Tony Fernández, Dominican baseball player
1963 – Rupert Graves, English actor (Damage, Handful of Dust, Maurice), born in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset
1963 – Yngwie J. Malmsteen, Swedish guitarist
1965 – Mitch Richmond, Fort Lauderdale Fl, NBA guard (Sac Kings, Oly-g-88, 96)
1965 – Steve Duchesne, Sept-iles, NHL defenseman (Ottawa Senators)
1965 – Gary Pallister, English footballer

Heavyweight Boxing Champion Mike Tyson(1966)

1966 – “Iron” Mike Tyson, NY, youngest heavyweight boxing champ (1986-90)
1966 – Louie Aguiar, NFL punter (KC Chiefs)
1966 – Marton Csokas, New Zealand actor
1967 – Rudi Steyn, cricketer (South African opening batsman 1995)
1967 – Sheila Hudson, US triple jumper (US record 1992)
1967 – Tina Bockrath, Dayton Oh, playmate (May, 1990)/actress
1968 – Dan Peltier, Clifton Park NY, outfielder (SF Giants)
1968 – Peter Miller, CFL linebacker (BC Lions)
1968 – Philip Anselmo, American musician
1969 – Jim Montgomery, Montreal, NHL center (Phila Flyers)
1969 – Ken Gernander, Grand Rapids, NHL center (NY Rangers)
1969 – Kristina Farrar Stookey, Martha Vineyard MA, 470 yachter (Oly-4th-96)
1969 – Sanath Jayasuriya, cricketer (Sri Lankan open bat MVP-1996 World Cup)
1970 – Brian Bloom, actor (As the World Turns)
1970 – Mark Grudzielanek, Milwaukee Wisc, infielder (Montreal Expos)
1971 – Ann Marsh, Royal Oak Mich, fencer-foil (Olympics-96)
1971 – Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev, USSR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 11), dies at 38
1971 – Anette Michel, Mexican actress
1971 – Monica Potter, American actress
1972 – Dan Comiskey, CFL guard (Saskatchewan Roughriders)
1972 – Ellen Coleen Pasturzak, Portsmouth Ohio, Miss America-Ohio (1996)
1972 – Garret Anderson, outfielder (California Angels), born in Los Angeles, California
1972 – Tyrone Davis, NFL tight end (NY Jets, Green Bay Packers-Super Bowl 31)
1972 – Sandra Cam, Belgian swimmer
1972 – James Martin, English celebrity chef
1973 – Chan Ho Park, Kong Ju City Korea, pitcher (LA Dodgers)
1973 – Dodda Ganesh, cricketer (Karnataka & India pace bowler 1997)
1974 – Michelle Kang, Fredericksburg Virginia, Miss America-Virginia (1997)
1974 – Melanie Lambert American ice skater
1974 – Hezekiel Sepeng, Potchefstroom South Africa, South African athlete
1975 – Natasha Sturgess, Australian mistral yachter (Olympics-96)

Formula 1 Racing Driver Ralf Schumacher (1975)

1975 – Ralf Schumacher, German race car driver (F1)
1976 – Brian Rocheleleau, Honolulu Hawaii, kayak (alt-olympics-96)
1977 – Lola Odusoga, Finland, Miss Universe-3rd place (1996)
1978 – Owen Lafave, ex-husband of Debra Lafave
1978 – Ben Cousins, Australian Football League player
1979 – Matisyahu, Hasidic Jewish Reggae singer
1979 – Rick Gonzalez, Hispanic-American actor
1979 – Travis Minor, National Football League Runningback
1980 – Rade Prica, Swedish footballer
1981 – Allison Schroeder, Miss Wisconsin Teen USA (1997)
1981 – Can Artam, Turkish racing driver
1981 – Matt Kirk, Canadian football Player
1981 – Karolina Sadalska, Polish kayaker
1981 – Ben Utecht, American football Player
1982 – Dan Jacobs, American guitarist (Atreyu)
1982 – Andy Knowles, British musician (Franz Ferdinand)
1982 – Mitch Maier, American baseball player
1982 – Lizzy Caplan, American actress (Mean Girls, Marlena Diamond-Cloverfield), born in Los Angeles, California
1983 – Brendon James, British drummer (Thirteen Senses)
1983 – Marlin Jackson, American football player
1983 – Patrick Wolf, British musician
1983 – Cheryl Cole, British singer (Girls Aloud)
1984 – Fantasia Barrino, American singer
1984 – Gabriel Badilla, Costa Rican footballer
1985 – Rafal Blechacz, Polish classical pianist
1985 – Michael Phelps, American swimmer (16 Olympic medals), born in Baltimore, Maryland

Swimmer Michael Phelps(1985)

1985 – Fabiana Vallejos, Argentine footballer
1985 – Cody Runnels, American wrestler
1986 – Victoria Crawford, American wrestler and model
1991 – Kaho, Japanese actress


1831 – Soldier and Future Confederate General Robert E. Lee (24) marries Mary Curtis (22) at Arlington House, Arlington Virginia
1973 – Prime Minister of Canada Joe Clark (34) weds lawyer Maureen McTeer (21)
1975 – Cher, just 4 days after divorcing Sonny Bono marries Gregg Allman
1978 – English prince Michael marries baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz
1992 – Actress Cecil Hoffman (Zoe-LA Law) marries Paul Slye
2008 – Singer-actress Olivia Newton-John (59) weds natural-health businessman John Easterling (56) in Florida’s Jupiter Island

Actor Alec Baldwin (2012)

2012 – Actor Alec Baldwin (54) weds Hilaria Thomas at St. Patrick’s Old Cathedral in New York City
2012 – Mick Jagger’s daughter Jade Jagger (41) weds longtime boyfriend Adrian Fillary at the Aynhoe Park Hotel in Oxfordshire, England
2012 – Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Michael Vick (32) weds longtime girlfriend Kijfa Frink at the Fontainebleau resort in Miami Beach, Florida
2012 – “The Doctors” co-host Travis Stork (40) weds pediatrician Dr. Charlotte Brown in Colorado


1992 – Actress Natasha Richardson (29) divorces producer Robert Fox (39) after a year of marriage
2006 – American singer-songwriter and TV personality Jessica Simpson (25) divorces 98 Degrees boy band singer Nick Lachey (32) due to irreconcilable differences after 3 years of marriage
2010 – “Scream 4” actress Neve Campbell (37) divorces actor John Light (36) due to irreconcilable differences after 3 years of marriage


350 – Nepotianus, Roman usurper
1109 – Alfonso VI, (imperator totius Hispaniae), king of Leon, dies
1181 – Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester, English politician (b. 1147)
1224 – Adolf of Osnabrück, Saint Adolf (b. 1185)
1364 – Arnost of Pardubice, Archbishop of Prague (b. 1297)
1520 – Moctezuma II, Aztec emperor (1502-20), killed either by the Spanish or stoned by his own people
1538 – Charles van Egmond, duke of Gelre/earl of Zutphen, dies at 70
1579 – Mehmed Pasha Sokolović, Turkish Janissary
1607 – Caesar Baronius, Italian cardinal and historian (b. 1538)
1649 – Simon Vouet, French painter
1655 – Jacob Boonen, South Netherlands clergyman/lawyer, dies at 81
1660 – William Oughtred, English mathematician (b. 1575)
1662 – Johannes C Verspronck, portrait painter, buried at about 64
1666 – Adam Krieger, German composer, dies at 32
1666 – Alexander Brome, British poet
1670 – Henrietta Anne Stuart, Princess of England, Scotland, and Ireland (b. 1644)

Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II (1520)

1685 – Archibald Campbell, Scottish politician, beheaded at about 55
1704 – John Quelch, a pirate was hanged (b. 1665)
1709 – Edward Lhuyd, Welsh scientist (b. 1660)
1785 – James Oglethorpe, English general and founder of the state of Georgia (b. 1696)
1792 – Francesco Antonio Rosetti, composer, dies
1796 – Abraham Yates, American Continental Congressman (b. 1724)
1817 – Abraham Gottlob Werner, German geologist
1819 – Ernst Ludwig Gerber, composer, dies at 72
1839 – Johan O Wallin, Swedish poet/archbishop (Dead Angel), dies
1857 – Alcide d’Orbigny, French naturalist (b. 1802)
1862 – Richard Griffith, US Confederate brig-general, dies in battle at 48
1882 – Charles J. Guiteau, assassin (President Garfield), hanged at 40
1882 – Alberto Henschel, German-Brazilian photographer and businessman (b. 1827)

Assassin Charles J. Guiteau(1882)

1889 – Eugenio Terziani, composer, dies at 64
1890 – Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, composer, dies at 71
1899 – Jon Helgason, Icelandic poet (Ur Landsudri), dies
1904 – Thomas Emmett, cricketer (English Test bowler of the sostenuter), dies
1905 – John Hay, US politician, dies
1914 – Bai Long, [White Wolf], Chinese Robin Hood/crowd leader, dies
1919 – John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist and discoverer of argon (Nobel Prize 1904), dies at 76
1920 – Lena Christ, writer, dies at 38
1923 – Claude Antoine Terrasse, composer, dies at 56
1924 – Jacob Israel de Haan, Dutch poet/writer (Pypelyntjes), dies at 42
1934 – Ernst Rohm, German staff member, executed at 46
1934 – Gregor Strasser, German pharmacist/NSDAP-leader, murdered at 42
1934 – Karl Ernst, German SA-leader, murdered

Physicist and Nobel Laureate John William Strutt (1919)

Watch the video: 1936 Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia Addresses League of Nations