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Frank Sullivan was born in Saratoga Springs, on 22nd September, 1892. After graduating from Cornell University in 1914 he became a journalist and worked for The Saratogian newspaper. During the First World War he served in the United States Army. In 1919 he moved to New York City and worked as a reporter for the New York Herald, the New York Sun and in 1922 the New York World. He eventually was given his own column "Out of a Clear Sky."
In the early 1920s Sullivan was associated with those involved in the Algonquin Round Table. Other members included Robert E. Sherwood, Dorothy Parker, Robert Benchley, Alexander Woollcott, Heywood Broun, Harold Ross, Donald Ogden Stewart, Edna Ferber, Ruth Hale, Franklin Pierce Adams, Jane Grant, Neysa McMein, Alice Duer Miller, Charles MacArthur, Marc Connelly, George S. Kaufman, Beatrice Kaufman, Frank Crowninshield, Ben Hecht, Frank Sullivan, John Peter Toohey, Lynn Fontanne, Alfred Lunt and Ina Claire.
Harold Ross, Jane Grant and Raoul Fleischmann established the The New Yorker in 1925. Sullivan had his first article published in the magazine in January, 1926. Other contributors included Dorothy Parker (poems and short-stories), Robert Benchley (theatre critic), James Thurber (cartoons and short-stories), Alexander Woollcott, Elwyn Brooks White, John McNulty, Joseph Mitchell, Katharine S. White (also fiction editor), Sidney J. Perelman, Janet Flanner (correspondent based in Paris), Wolcott Gibbs (theatre critic), St. Clair McKelway and John O'Hara (over 200 of his short-stories appeared in the magazine).
Sullivan was close to Dorothy Parker. He later recalled that when she broke up with John McClain she phoned him up: "She was all woe over the phone. She told me she had had a row with John McClain, and she said, 'I've had to get away from it all... You're the only person I'd like to see. You come up. Say nothing to anyone. Come to the Plaza this afternoon and have a drink with me.' So of course I sprang to the call. You always sprang to the call when Dottie needed you."
Sullivan was known for his collection of fictitious characters including: Aunt Sally Gallup, Martha Hepplethwaite, the Forgotten Bach, and Mr. Arbuthnot, the cliché expert. One of his colleagues later recalled: "The main thing about Frank Sullivan, of course, is that he was terrifically funny. His pieces were short and bright and apparently offhand. They looked easy, and maybe only writers really understand how special they were, and how hard to do."
Frank Sullivan, who never married, died in Saratoga Springs, on 19th February, 1976.
The main thing about Frank Sullivan, of course, is that he was terrifically funny. They looked easy, and maybe only writers really understand how special they were, and how hard to do.
Frank solivan & dirty kitchen
With chops so hot, Frank Solivan & Dirty Kitchen were named IBMA’s 2016 Instrumental Group of the Year for the second time, with a third nomination in 2017. Their critically acclaimed album Cold Spell earned a 2015 GRAMMY nomination for Best Bluegrass Album of the Year, yet the accolades don’t end there.
In 2019 the band received it’s second GRAMMY nomination for If You Can’t Stand The Heat for Best Bluegrass Album of the Year.
Solivan, with banjoist Mike Munford, 2013 IBMA Banjo Player of the Year, award-winning guitarist Chris Luquette and bassist Jeremy Middleton, simmer a progressive bluegrass stew of infinite instrumental, vocal and songwriting skills soon to be featured once again on their new album If You Can't Stand the Heat slated to drop January 25th, 2019.
Since leaving the cold climes of Alaska for the bluegrass hotbed of Washington, D.C., Frank Solivan has built a reputation as a monster mandolinist — and become a major festival attraction with his band, Dirty Kitchen. Their respect and deep understanding of the tradition collides, live on stage, with jazz virtuosity creating an unforgettable, compelling performance.
Vocals, Mandolin, Fiddle / Frank Solivan
Banjo / Mike Munford
Bass / Jeremy Middleton
Guitar / Chris Luquette
Frank Solivan & Dirty Kitchen deliver their third and most impressive release IF YOU CAN’T STAND THE HEAT on the heels of a Grammy nomination and multiple IBMA awards including 2016’s Instrumental Group of the Year. The new 10-song collection, co-produced by Grammy-winning banjoist and Compass co-founder Alison Brown offers a vibrant mix of songs, from the traditional “Leah” featuring the mid-Atlantic bluegrass vocals of Danny Paisley and Dudley Connellto the neo-old timey Crooked Eye John, written by Cris Jacobs and featuring the inimitable fiddling of label mate Michael Cleveland to the compelling lead-off track “Crave” co-written by Frank and Becky Buller and showcasing the guitar prowess of Chris Luquette. "Crave" will have an exclusive radio premiere this Friday, November 16th on SiriusXM's Bluegrass Junction. The band also delivers a compelling rendition of Steely Dan’s “Rikki” featuring the lead vocals of Jeremy Middleton, the catchy “ Be Sure" written by Frank Solivan and the red-hot instrumental "Crack of Noon" penned by banjoist Mike Munford. Taken as a whole, IF YOU CAN’T STAND THE HEAT is an album with legs and one that is bound to influence the future evolution of bluegrass music.
2. Crooked Eyed John
3. My Own Way
4. Crack of Noon
5. Set in Stone
7. Wild Mustang
8. Rikki Don't Lose That Number
10. Be Sure
Early years Edit
Before Survivor formed, Jim Peterik was the lead vocalist–guitarist for the band The Ides of March.  In the mid 1970s, The Jim Peterik Band was formed after Peterik had released his album Don't Fight the Feeling on Epic Records in 1976. In the liner notes of the album, written by Jim Charney, Peterik is referred to as a "survivor.” This note was the inspiration for the name of Peterik's next grouping.
Drummer Gary Smith and bassist Dennis Keith Johnson had both been members of Bill Chase's jazz-rock fusion band Chase Peterik had worked with Chase in 1974. One of the other inspirations for Peterik's choice of the new band's name was his narrow escape from death when he was unable to make a guest appearance at a Chase concert scheduled for Jackson, Minnesota on August 9, 1974. He ended up not being on the plane that crashed, killing Bill Chase and most of his band.
In 1978, the Jim Peterik Band had dissolved, and Jim was considering returning to singing and producing jingles. After several days of pleading with Peterik, road manager/sound man Rick Weigand persuaded him to meet with guitarist Frankie Sullivan (ex-Mariah). Within an hour of that first meeting, the band Survivor was born. Johnson and Smith were recruited and Peterik brought in singer Dave Bickler (ex-Jamestown Massacre), who had worked with Peterik in Chicago on commercial jingles sessions.
In September 1978, Survivor played their very first show at Lyons Township High School in La Grange, Illinois. After playing in small clubs during the rest of that year, one of them being the original My Pi  pizzeria near Loyola University Chicago, where they headlined every Saturday night in the upstairs bar area, Survivor was signed by Atlantic Records A&R executive John Kalodner.  One of Survivor's earliest performances (their second gig, according to Peterik, in his autobiography Through the Eye of the Tiger), from Haymakers Rock Club in Wheeling, Illinois on September 15, 1978, has appeared as a bootleg recording in trader's circles in recent years.
The group's first album, the self-titled Survivor, was recorded in 1979 and released on the Atlantic subsidiary Scotti Bros. in February 1980. The album produced no Top 40 singles ("Somewhere in America" only managed to make number 70) and did not achieve the level of success that the band had hoped for.
During Survivor's first album, Peterik played rhythm guitar. All keyboards were performed by lead singer Dave Bickler (who plays several instruments), but Peterik's role quickly became backing vocals, keyboards and co-songwriter by 1981, with some keyboard parts being performed on records by session players per the producers.
In 1981, it was decided to let Johnson and Smith go as they had schedule conflicts with their other projects and were a bit "too jazzy" in their approach, according to Peterik. They were replaced by Sullivan's friend and drummer Marc Droubay and bassist Stephan Ellis, whom Peterik and Sullivan had spotted playing in a band at Flipper's Roller Boogie Palace in the Los Angeles, CA area.
Both Droubay and Ellis came aboard in time for the recording of the band's follow-up album, Premonition (August 1981). It charted higher, achieving popularity with American audiences and gave the band its first Top 40 single, "Poor Man's Son". The album also showed off Bickler's range as a vocalist with its second single, "Summer Nights" and fan favorite non-singles, like "Heart's A Lonely Hunter", "Take You On A Saturday", "Runway Lights" and "Love Is On My Side".
Eye of the Tiger Edit
In 1982 Survivor's breakthrough arrived when actor Sylvester Stallone asked them to provide the theme song for his movie Rocky III. Stallone had heard "Poor Man's Son" and wanted a song similar to it and to Queen's "Another One Bites the Dust".  The band agreed to his request and soon came up with "Eye of the Tiger". 
The new song featured a faster tempo than "Poor Man's Son" while still incorporating the stylish, nearly identical power chords. It had an enormous impact on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, peaking at number 1, remaining there for six weeks and was in the Top 40 for a total of eighteen weeks. It also topped the British charts and was Australia's number 1 single for four weeks. 
"Eye" went on to win the band the Grammy Award for Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal, was voted Best New Song by the People's Choice Awards and received an Academy Award nomination. 
The album of the same title, Eye of the Tiger, was released by the band in June 1982 and contained another Top 40 hit in the United States, "American Heartbeat" (number 17 US) and "The One That Really Matters" (number 74 US). The album charted at number 2 in the States.
In 1983 Survivor tried to duplicate the success of Eye of the Tiger with their next release, Caught in the Game (September 1983). The album turned out to be a commercial disappointment, stalling at number 82 on the Billboard 200 in the U.S., while the album's title track peaked at number 77.
The band suffered a further setback when lead singer Dave Bickler suffered vocal problems and was required to undergo an operation to remove vocal fold nodules, a very common ailment in singers, that required rest which Peterik and Sullivan were unwilling to do. Bickler was fired and the band's record label, yet again, failed to do much in the way of promotion of what many feel was a superior album overall to Eye Of The Tiger one year before. In early 1984, Bickler was replaced by Jimi Jamison of the bands Target and Cobra.
1984–1988: Jimi Jamison era Edit
The band's first song to feature Jimi Jamison was "The Moment of Truth", the theme song of the box office smash hit The Karate Kid (1984), which peaked at number 63 on the Billboard Hot 100 in June 1984. Next came Survivor's first album with Jamison, Vital Signs (August 1984), which provided the band with a massive comeback, peaking at number 16 on the Billboard Album Chart with the hits "I Can't Hold Back" (number 13 US), "High on You" (number 8 US), and "The Search Is Over" (number 4 US).
In 1985 the band went on tour with Bryan Adams, performing sold-out concerts at Nashville's War Memorial Auditorium, the Dallas Convention Center, the San Antonio Convention Center and the Lakefront Arena in New Orleans.  Later that year they had another hit with "Burning Heart", a song from the Rocky IV soundtrack, which peaked at number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 in early 1986.
When Seconds Count was released in October 1986 and included the hit "Is This Love" (number 9 U.S.). On the Billboard Album Chart the album only reached number 49 but still managed to sell over 500,000 copies and reached certified gold status.
In 1987 bassist Ellis developed a stomach ulcer requiring the band's head roadie, Rocko Reedy, to fill in on bass for a few dates. These health problems ultimately forced him out of the group. Drummer Droubay, who was becoming increasingly unhappy with the group's shift to a more pop sound, was likewise released at the end of Survivor's 1987 tour.
During pre-production of their seventh album, Too Hot to Sleep (October 1988), Ellis and Droubay were replaced by studio session veterans drummer Mickey Curry and bassist Bill Syniar, formerly of the band Tantrum. Sullivan produced the effort with Frank Filipetti. Though the album presented a harder-rocking Survivor, similar to the sound in the band's early days, Too Hot to Sleep failed to make a significant dent on the chart (only number 187 US).
There were, reportedly, a few live dates done by the band during this period (including a stint as opening act for Cheap Trick on "The Flame" Tour of North America) that included Syniar on bass and Kyle Woodring on drums.
1988–2000: Hiatus, Bickler's return and legal issues Edit
After the disappointing sales of Too Hot to Sleep, Jamison decided to start work on a solo album and Peterik and Sullivan decided to put the band on indefinite hiatus in the fall of 1988. A Greatest Hits compilation was released in late 1989.
Jamison's debut solo album, When Love Comes Down, was released in July 1991 and he decided to continue touring and playing Survivor songs with local musicians. Meanwhile, the Survivor rhythm section of Ellis and Droubay decided to form the group Club M.E.D. with guitarist Rod McClure, releasing the album Sampler in 1990.  Peterik co-wrote "The Sound of Your Voice", "Rebel to Rebel" and "Treasure" for 38 Special's 1991 album Bone Against Steel.
In 1992 Jamison toured, now billing his band as "Survivor" or "Jimi Jamison's Survivor". After Jamison's success touring overseas that year, Sullivan contacted Jamison's management and asked to be included on the tour he performed on eight to ten dates before leaving the group. Soon after, in late 1992 to early 1993, Survivor was tapped to make a new and more extensive hits package with two new songs. For a short time, Peterik, Sullivan and Jamison were reunited in the studio to record new material for the new package and forthcoming world tour. But after contract talks faltered, Jamison quit and went back on the road again as "Jimi Jamison's Survivor".
In early 1993, Peterik and Sullivan reunited with original lead singer Dave Bickler as Survivor and released a new Greatest Hits album with two new songs ("Hungry Years", co-written by Bickler, and "You Know Who You Are"). They embarked on a world tour, with Bill Syniar and Kyle Woodring returning on bass and drums, respectively. Klem Hayes, who had performed on the new tracks on the 1993 compilation, took over on bass in 1994 after Syniar departed.
As Jamison was also touring as Survivor, Peterik and Sullivan filed a lawsuit against their former colleague for using the name but ultimately failed (at the time) in their bid to stop Jamison from touring under the "Survivor" banner.
On November 27, 1993 guitarist Dave Carl filled in for Sullivan at a gig at Club Dimensions in Highland, Indiana after the latter injured his ribs from falling through a garage roof.
From 1993 to 1996, Peterik, Sullivan and Bickler recorded about 20 demos for a new album (which are available on the Fire Makes Steel bootleg) with Syniar and Woodring and, later, Ellis and Droubay contributing. But they failed to secure a record deal due to ongoing litigation and trademark issues with Jamison.
In 1995 Klem Hayes departed and the bass chair was filled, first by Randy Riley (1995), then by Billy Ozzello (1995–1996).
With Peterik and Sullivan increasingly at musical and personal odds and Sullivan attempting to move the band in more of a bluesy direction, Peterik abruptly decided to leave Survivor, playing his last show with them on July 3, 1996 at the 'Eyes To The Skies' summer fest in Lisle, Illinois.
At this juncture, Sullivan and Bickler were effectively the only remaining original members of the band. Survivor replaced Peterik with composer–keyboardist Chris Grove. Peterik returned to recording and touring with The Ides of March and also formed the group Pride of Lions.
In late 1996, bassist Stephan Ellis and drummer Marc Droubay rejoined Survivor, but Ellis left again by early 1999 and was replaced by Gordon Patriarca who only played about a half a dozen shows before Billy Ozzello was brought back. Survivor then went on to record more demos for a record deal, including "Rebel Girl '98" and the Sullivan solo album cut "Lies".
In 1999 Jamison released the album Empires under the name "Jimi Jamison's Survivor" (later re-released under his own name).
In late September 1999, Sullivan, who had brought forth another lawsuit against Jamison, won ownership of the name "Survivor", thereby ending the ongoing trademark battle.
2000–2006: Bickler's departure and Jamison's return Edit
In March 2000 Bickler was fired, severing the then Sullivan–Bickler Survivor and resulting in Sullivan's reestablishment of a partnership with Jamison. The band then began recording material for a new album. The Peterik–Sullivan-penned track "Velocitized" was set for inclusion on the soundtrack to the Stallone film Driven. However, it did not make the cut.
Later that year, the band threatened to sue CBS for using the name "Survivor" as the title of their hit reality show Survivor.
For 2002, they recorded "Christmas is Here" which managed to move up the Mediabase Christmas charts, reaching No. 6 as the most added holiday song at radio, and which appeared on the soundtrack A Classic Rock Christmas. 
In 2003 bassist Randy Riley returned to replace Billy Ozzello.
In 2004 a Starbucks television commercial debuted for their Double Shot espresso beverage. It featured the band following a man named Glen, singing a modified version of "Eye of the Tiger" while he went about his day-to-day tasks. This commercial gained a number of fans and was nominated for an Emmy Award. 
Meanwhile, original Survivor vocalist David Bickler began collaborating on the successful Bud Light beer Real Men of Genius radio ads in the late 1990s and 2000s. The Real Men of Genius ads were popular and included TV spots aired during the 2006 Super Bowl, among others. A CD package containing many of the popular commercials was recorded with Bickler, selling over 100,000 copies in its first month of release.
Bassist Stephan Ellis returned to play a few shows with the group in 2005, but Barry Dunaway played bass for most of that year. By early 2006, Billy Ozzello returned as bassist.
In April 2006, Survivor released a new album, Reach. Consisting of mostly new songs, it also included some re-recordings from the Fire Makes Steel sessions. Six of the album's songs were originally written and recorded in the 1990s with Bickler on lead vocals.
On July 14, 2006 Jamison left the band once again. Former McAuley Schenker Group singer Robin McAuley replaced him on lead vocals.
2007–present: Reunions and Jamison's death Edit
The band performed "Eye of the Tiger" on ABC's Dancing with the Stars on April 3, 2007.
In 2008 Michael Young replaced Chris Grove on keyboards.
According to Sullivan, and revealed at Survivormusic.com on March 5, 2010, an album of new original music, Re-Entry, was to be released the following month, but no album was released. As of 2010, the lineup was a mix of old and new members: Robin McAuley (vocals), original member/songwriter Sullivan (guitar/vocals), longtime members Marc Droubay (drums) and Billy Ozzello (bass) and newcomer Mitchell Sigman (keyboards/guitar), who replaced Young.
Sullivan worked with the Chicago suburb melodic rock band Mecca, led by Chicago area native singer–songwriter Joe Knez Vana. Coincidentally, he replaced Peterik, who produced the first Mecca album. The album was released in late 2011 on Frontiers Records.
In November 2011 Jamison announced his return to Survivor. The new lineup of Jamison (vocals), Sullivan (guitar), Droubay (drums), Ozzello (bass) and Walter Tolentino (keyboards/guitar/backing vocals) announced they would begin working on a new album, which was slated for release in 2012 but has thus far not appeared.
In 2013, it was announced on the band's official media sources that Sullivan had reunited the current Survivor line-up with Bickler. "Our fans are the best and I can't think of a better way to give them our best. With this line-up, and both Dave and Jimi in the band, we can perform ALL of our hits," he said. They were also working on new material and looking forward to getting back into the studio together. 
As of 2014, Frankie's son, Ryan, has taken over on drums in place of Droubay, who had to bow out due to health matters. 
On September 1, 2014 Jamison died of what was believed to be a heart attack in his home in Memphis, Tennessee, at age 63. Jamison performed his last show on August 30, 2014, in Morgan Hill, California, at the CANcert benefit event during the ARTTEC Summer Concert Series. The benefit raised funds and awareness for two non-profit organizations that support cancer patients as well as career training opportunities for high school students.  In November 2014 Classic Rock magazine carried a report that shed further light on the cause of Jimi's death: "Shelby County medical examiner confirms [Jamison] was suffering from cardiovascular disease and narrowing of the arteries. But the report cites the cause of death as a result of hemorrhagic brain stroke, with 'acute methamphetamine intoxication contributing.' His passing was ruled to be an accident." 
In September 2015, Survivor appeared at a showcase for talent buyers down in Nashville, with new vocalist 21-year-old Cameron Barton singing alongside Dave Bickler. In March 2016, Bickler quit the band  this was announced via an edit on Survivor's Twitter page.
In late 2017, California musician/actor/composer Jeffrey Bryan (a.k.a. Jeff Fishman) joined Survivor, replacing Tolentino. 
On February 28, 2019, the former Survivor bassist Stephan Ellis died at his home in California. No further details on the cause of his death were officially made available, although various Facebook posts from family members and friends indicate that he had been ill for a while, suffering from dementia, and that he spent his final days in a hospice.  
Frank Sullivan : Biography - History
Director since 1995
Director in Class I (term expiring in 2022)
Frank C. Sullivan is chairman and chief executive officer of RPM International Inc. He began his career with RPM in 1987 as regional sales manager for its joint venture AGR Company, before being elected to director of corporate development in 1989, vice president in 1991 and chief financial officer in 1993. Sullivan became executive vice president in 1995, president in 1999 and chief operating officer in 2001, before leading the company as president and chief executive officer in 2002. Sullivan was later elected chairman of the board in 2008. Before joining RPM, he held various commercial lending and corporate finance positions at Harris Bank and First Union National Bank from 1983–1987. Sullivan serves on the boards of The Timken Company, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, the American Coatings Association, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the Army War College Foundation, the Ohio Business Roundtable, the Cleveland School of Science and Medicine, the Greater Cleveland Partnership and the Medina County Bluecoats Chapter. Sullivan holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of North Carolina as a Morehead Scholar. He is the son of the late Thomas C. Sullivan, former chairman and CEO of RPM.
Frank Sullivan : Biography - History
1947 | THE FOUNDING OF RPM
In May 1947, Frank C. Sullivan founded Republic Powdered Metals—the forerunner to RPM International Inc. At the time, the company manufactured and sold a heavy-duty aluminum roof coating called Alumanation, which is still sold today. In that first year, sales reached $90,000.
From the very beginning, Sullivan held the belief that the success of his business would be driven by the people behind it. His long-standing philosophy—“Hire the best people you can find. Create an atmosphere that will keep them. Then, let them do their jobs.”—is one that RPM still operates under to this day. Every year under his leadership, the company achieved sales and earnings increases that outpaced original projections and drove continued growth for the business.
1971 | ACQUISITION PLAN LEADS TO STRATEGIC GROWTH
In August 1971, Frank Sullivan died suddenly. Later that same year, RPM, Inc. was formed with the vision of developing a more aggressive acquisition program in a rapidly consolidating paint and coatings industry. Frank’s son, Thomas C. Sullivan, who was previously president of Republic Powdered Metals, became chairman and chief executive officer of RPM, Inc. He and James A. Karman, who was elected president and chief operating officer in 1978, led RPM for more than three decades.
After more than 30 years at the helm of RPM, Sullivan and Karman retired as executive officers of the company in 2002. During their tenure, net sales increased to $2 billion from $11 million, net income increased to $101.6 million from .6 million and cash dividends per share increased to .50 from .0035 (split adjusted). A $1,000 investment in RPM shares in 1971 would have been worth more than $100,000 by 2002—a testament to the company’s impressive growth.
Tom was succeeded by his son, Frank C. Sullivan, who became president and chief executive officer in 2002. Since then, he has continued to lead RPM by executing a long-term growth strategy consistent with the legacy created and handed down by his father and grandfather before him.
Share All sharing options for: Mayor Richard J. Daley’s press secretary Francis J. ‘Frank’ Sullivan has died at 91
Frank Sullivan, a former Sun-Times reporter who became press secretary for Mayor Richard J. Daley Provided
Frank Sullivan, former press secretary to Mayor Richard J. Daley, died Friday at 91, his family said.
Mr. Sullivan worked as a Chicago Sun-Times reporter from 1956 to 1968, covering the criminal courthouse and spending his last three years at the paper reporting from City Hall.
In 1968, he helped start the Chicago Police Department’s news affairs office, according to his daughter Molly Sullivan.
When the police were criticized about violence inflicted on demonstrators at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, he staunchly defended them.
“He was right there in the middle of it,” Molly Sullivan said. “He said he had bricks thrown at his head.”
Mr. Sullivan moved to the role of mayoral press secretary in 1973, as Daley was being dinged by controversy over a shift of city insurance business to an agency that employed his son John P. Daley.
Mr. Sullivan also was responsible for the malaprop-prone mayor’s messaging amid reports of police spying on civic groups.
In a 1989 interview with the Sun-Times, he said Daley had “a very high IQ despite his proneness to inarticulateness. He had the quickest mind of anyone I’ve ever been with.”
Mr. Sullivan left City Hall after Daley’s death in 1976. He was publisher of Avenue M magazine and founded the Frank Sullivan & Associates public relations firm.
“He had an incredible work ethic, and he had a love for Chicago,” his daughter said.
He was the grandson of Frank Sullivan, a House Democratic minority leader in Springfield, and grand-nephew of Roger C. Sullivan, an early leader of the Cook County Democratic Party.
He grew up in Edgewater and graduated from St. Gertrude’s grade school, Loyola Academy and Loyola University. During the Korean War, he served with the Army in Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
In addition to his daughter, Mr. Sullivan is survived by his wife Sally, son Matt, sisters Betty Moraghan, Trudy Schneider and Noreen Brady, brother Gene and three grandchildren.
Teaching Helen Keller
At only 20 years of age, Sullivan showed great maturity and ingenuity in teaching Keller. She wanted to help Keller make associations between words and physical objects, and worked hard with her rather stubborn and spoiled pupil. After isolating Keller from her family in order to better educate her, Sullivan began working to teach Keller how to communicate with the outside world. During one lesson, she finger-spelled the word "water" on one of Keller&aposs hands as she ran water over her student&aposs other hand. Keller finally made her first major breakthrough, connecting the concept of sign language with the objects around her.
Thanks to Sullivan&aposs instruction, Keller learned nearly 600 words, most of her multiplication tables, and how to read Braille within a matter of months. News of Sullivan&aposs success with Keller spread, and the Perkins school wrote a report about their progress as a team. Keller became a celebrity because of the report, meeting the likes of Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, and Mark Twain.
Sullivan decided that Keller could benefit from the Perkins School&aposs program, and the two spent time there off-and-on throughout Keller&aposs adolescence. They also sought aid for Keller&aposs speech at the Wight-Humason School in New York City. When Keller&aposs family could no longer afford to pay Sullivan or manage Helen&aposs school costs, a number of wealthy benefactors—including millionaire Andrew Carnegie—stepped in to help them defray their costs.
Despite the physical strain on her own limited sight, Sullivan helped Keller continue her studies at Radcliffe College in 1900. She spelled the contents of class lectures into Keller&aposs hand, and spent hours conveying information from textbooks to her. As a result, Keller became the first deaf-blind person to graduate from college.
Legacy of Louis Sullivan
Sullivan was a spokesman for the reform of architecture, an opponent of historical eclecticism, and did much to remake the image of the architect as a creative personality. His own designs are characterized by richness of ornament. His importance lies in his writings as well as in his architectural achievements. These writings, which are subjective and metaphorical, suggest directions for architecture, rather than explicit doctrines or programs. Sullivan himself warned of the danger of mechanical theories of art.
Sources of Sullivan’s ideas have been traced to the mid-19th-century writings of two Americans, the sculptor Horatio Greenough and the essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson, as well as to the English naturalist Charles Darwin. Darwin’s writings on evolution, particularly on organic growth, left their mark on European writers on architecture and, in turn, on Sullivan’s own thinking. The French architect César-Denis Daly, for example, in an essay reprinted in a Chicago architectural journal, stated that
each style of architecture…being born of the intellectual and moral forces of a human society…, has become naturally the expression of a certain civilization…The adoption by one age of a style…other than that which it has itself created, is hence in itself a false principle.
Out of such inquiries into the nature of style came Sullivan’s own famous dictum “form follows function,” a phrase that should not lead one to conclude that Sullivan believed that a design should be a mechanistic visual statement of utility. Rather, he believed that architecture must evolve from and express the environment in addition to expressing its particular function and its structural basis. It has been said that Sullivan was the first American architect to think consciously of the relationship between architecture and civilization.
The skyscraper was central to both Sullivan’s writing and his practice, and it is on this subject that his thought is most concise. His pre-skyscraper commercial buildings in Chicago, such as the Rothschild Store and the Troescher Building, show a conscious clarification and opening up of the facade. This simplification is carried into his “skyscrapers,” the Wainwright and the Guaranty, which are conceived as “a single, germinal impulse or idea” that permeates “the mass and its every detail with the same spirit.” The exceptional clarity of Sullivan’s designs has lost some of its impact because contemporary architecture has in part absorbed his ideas. Sullivan considered it obvious that the design of a tall office building should follow the functions of the building and that, where the function does not change, the form should not change. Unfortunately, Sullivan’s most dramatic skyscraper design, the Fraternity Temple (1891), intended for Chicago, was never built. This was to be a symmetrical structure with bold step-back forms and a soaring 35-story central tower.
Sullivan was just as much a revolutionary in his ornament as he was in his use of plain surfaces and cubic forms. His ornament was not based on historical precedent but rather upon geometry and the stylized forms of nature. Although his early ornament has some links to that of the Gothic Revival style and to the Queen Anne style, his mature ornament, seen best in his works at the turn of the century, is indisputably his own. It stands as a curious yet unrelated parallel to Art Nouveau ornamentation in Europe. Crisp yet fluid, tightly constructed yet exuberant, these designs remind one of Sullivan’s feeling that architecture should not only serve and express society but also illuminate the heart.
Sullivan’s own Autobiography of an Idea (1924) and Kindergarten Chats (published serially in 1901–02) are indispensable for a grasp of his architectural theory. The 1947 Wittenborn edition of the latter, Kindergarten Chats and Other Writings (rev. 1918), includes eight additional essays by Sullivan and a bibliography.
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10 things you probably don't know about Anne Sullivan
Anne Sullivan is best known for her role as Helen Keller’s teacher and friend. However, she led a fascinating life, full of heartbreaking lows (being sent to an overcrowded home for the destitute as a child) and remarkable highs (making friends with Mark Twain and Charlie Chaplin). Sullivan (right) is shown in this 1896 photo with a 16-year-old Keller.
Anne Sullivan is one of Perkins School for the Blind’s best-known students. After graduating from Perkins in 1886, she traveled to Alabama to educate Helen Keller, and remained Keller’s instructor, interpreter and friend until her death in 1936. Here are 10 things you may not know about Sullivan:
- Sullivan had a childhood of Dickensian squalor. Her parents were impoverished immigrants who fled the Great Famine in Ireland. She became almost blind from a bacterial eye disease when she was 5. Her mother died when she was 8, and her father abandoned Sullivan and her brother. They were sent to the Tewksbury Almshouse – an overcrowded home for the destitute – where her brother died a few months later. The experience roused in her, she wrote later, “not only compassion but a fierce indignation” for the plight of poor and marginalized people.
- Sullivan got an education because of her spunk. In 1880, Massachusetts launched an investigation into the Tewksbury Almshouse after reports of abuse, cruelty and even cannibalism. When the State Board of Charities sent official Frank B. Sanborn to inspect the school, Sullivan jumped in front of him, saying, “Mr. Sanborn, Mr. Sanborn, I want to go to school!” She was sent to Perkins School for the Blind.
- Sullivan didn’t fit in at Perkins. Other students looked down on her rough, lower-class ways. Her fierce determination helped her succeed academically, but her quick temper and willingness to break rules almost got her expelled several times. But she persevered, and graduated as class valedictorian.
- Sullivan remained embarrassed about her poor and unsophisticated upbringing throughout her life. Her cousin Anastatia said about her, “A colt or a heifer in the pasture has better manners.” As a result, Sullivan later said, “I was extremely conscious of my crudeness, and because I felt this inferiority, I carried a chip on my shoulder.”
- Sullivan learned finger-spelling from Laura Bridgman. A graduate of Perkins, Bridgman was the first person with deafblindness to get a formal education. The two spent time together when Sullivan was a student at Perkins, and Bridgman taught her how to form letters with her fingers to spell out words into the palm of a hand. Sullivan used that finger-spelling method to teach Helen Keller how to communicate.
- Mark Twain was the first person to call Sullivan a “miracle-worker.” The famous author was annoyed that people wanted to meet Keller but ignored her extraordinary teacher. To give Sullivan proper credit, he described her as a “miracle-worker.” That inspired the name of the iconic movie about Sullivan and Keller, “The Miracle Worker.”
- Sullivan married John Macy in May 1905 but not until after she had turned down his proposals multiple times. She was concerned that Macy couldn’t handle her fiery temper, and about their difference in religion (he was Protestant and she was Catholic). The two separated in 1914, but she retained her married name, Anne Sullivan Macy.
- Sullivan was friends with Charlie Chaplin. In 1918, when Sullivan and Keller moved to Hollywood make a movie about Keller’s life called “Deliverance,” Sullivan met Chaplin, one of the world’s most popular actors. They hit it off immediately, perhaps because they shared some unexpected similarities. Keller later wrote: “They had both struggled for education and social equality… Both were shy and unspoiled by their victories over fate.”
- Sullivan has been portrayed by more than 20 actresses in movies and TV shows. The most memorable performances include Anne Bancroft in “The Miracle Worker” (1962), Blythe Danner in “Helen Keller: The Miracle Continues,” a 1984 made-for-TV movie about Keller’s years at Radcliffe College, and Olivia d’Abo in a 1998 episode of the animated PBS kids show, “Adventures from the Book of Virtues.”
- There’s an interesting connection between Sullivan and baseball legend Nolan Ryan – they were both inducted into the Irish American Hall of Fame in 2016.
For more information about Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller, visit the Perkins archives.